The development of machine building in the USSR was paid specialAttention. Each plant tried to create a technological car that would take its niche in the infrastructure chain of the country. The plant in the city of Kutaisi kept up with the general tendencies and fulfilled the set requirements and tasks. The designers created a truck, which became legendary, KAZ-4540.
History of creation
In 1975, at the request of the USSR Goselhoztekhniki, NAMITogether with the City Clinical Hospital of Balashov, which specialized in the creation of trailers for automotive and tractor machinery, and with the Yaroslavl plant, the development of new machinery began. The task was to create a new model of a road train for the needs of agriculture. The truck was supposed to be some missing link, which included the collection of crops on the field, their further loading, as well as rapid transportation and unloading.
In the early 80's on the basis of Kutaisi plant wasproduction of new all-wheel-drive road trains was established. The basis for the new model was a prototype NAMI-0215, created from the conventional KAZ-608B, with upgraded running equipment and a two-axis drive.
Before starting a batch production andTo produce a new truck in the former USSR, full-scale testing of the samples was carried out. To this end, initially 20 machines were created, on which all road and bench checks were carried out. In 1981, a new train was successfully completed at the NAMI training ground. The designers did not stop there and made a number of amendments and changes to the individual nodes and parts of the design. After this, new experiments followed and further tests. The new KAZ-4540 had nothing in common with the previous models of the brand "Colchis".
Already in January 84th, when interdepartmental tests were completed, the truck was recommended for launch in production. A month later, they created the first batch of 500 cars.
On the basis of this truck was developed and a truck tractor. He received a new marking - KAZ-4440.
This name was given to the lineup of tractorsproduction of Kutaisi plant. The first truck left in August 1951. Most of the components were brought from the Stalin plant. Thanks to the nodes of the Moscow enterprise, dump trucks, small-size truck tractors, and also cargo vehicles under the Kolkhida brand were assembled. The photos of the new copy did not look like any of those existing at the time.
"4540" - a model created to meet theneeds of agriculture. Production continued from 1985 to 1998. During this period, several different modifications of the truck "Colchis" were created. A distinctive feature of KAZ-4540 was a bright orange cabin with very large windscreens.
Freight transport KAZ-4540, which differed fromall other models by two leading bridges, was often used in conjunction with the GKB-8535 trailer. This bundle was a kind of road train used to transport agricultural products.
KAZ-4540 dump truck is a universal machine withpossibility of unloading on three sides. Depending on the specifics of the materials or terrain, one particular method was used. The truck was equipped with an all-wheel drive with an additional locking differential rear axle.
The technological design made it possible to applyThe machine is paired with combine harvesters for harvesting cereals and cotton. "Colchis" is a car with sufficient cross-country capability required for machinery used in agriculture and a capacity of 11 tons.
In 1990, the designers prepareddocumentation that would allow the car to be equipped with a refrigerator, used together with a cargo platform, and also to create a car for firemen. Unfortunately, the developments were not further developed and remained only on paper. "Colchis", the photo of which is presented below, is the most popular specimen at the time of the creation of the machine.
Cabin - beskapotnaya, located aboveengine. Such an arrangement made it possible to increase maneuverability and maximize the use of the entire platform. "Colchis" - a car with a short wheelbase and an excellent overview for the driver. The large-capacity cabin had a separate seating area, a fan, and a heater. All this in the aggregate provided a sufficiently high comfort parameter for long and long flights. In 1985, it was a very good indicator.
In 1990, the production of modernizedversion. It was equipped with a hydraulic system to control the opening of the sides. When unloading to any of the working parties, the board was automatically closed.
The car was equipped with a diesel motor brandYaMZ-KAZ-642. The KAZ-4540 engine was installed behind the wheelbase and worked in tandem with an eight-speed gearshift (4 available gears and an additional divider).
The power plant was located directlyabove the front bridge, and all the bodies providing the control have been moved forward as much as possible. The driver's seat was above the motor. The decision to create such a layout was caused by the need to increase the usable area on which the transported materials were located. By increasing the angle of exit increased the patency. Such a scheme ensured uniform distribution of the load on both axes. The front part is 6.12 tons of weight, and the rear - 6.14 tons.
Uniform loading has allowed to use single wheels with wide tires, and also considerably simplified the system of the control of pressure in air chambers.
A lot of innovations were introduced when creatingKAZ-4540. One of these was the disk joint, which is more reliable than the spherical analog. The maximum speed was 80 km / h, but the load-carrying capacity was only 6 tonnes.
The running equipment allows the car to moveon heavy dirt roads, as well as on fields after plowing. The KAZ-4540 dump truck was equipped with a transmission with 8 positions, providing forward movement, and also two - back. It was a complex design, consisting of a 4-speed transmission and a divider with 2 modes of operation.
Dry clutch mounted with frictiondiscs and pneumatic drive. Rotation from the motor was fed to both bridges. In the transfer case, a differential was installed for interlocking. The control was carried out using a separate button located on the instrument panel.
Suspension of the front axle is assembled from longitudinal springs and telescopic shock absorbers. At the back there are semi-elliptic twin springs.
Drivers who worked on Kolkhida branding technology note that the most successful model was KAZ-4540. Reviews are not entirely unambiguous, but in many ways converge. The main advantages that were noted:
- "4540" is the first dump truck in the USSR, created exclusively for the needs of agriculture.
- Simple maintenance and repair due to easy access to almost all nodes and mechanisms.
- Excellent cross-country ability with maximum load of the road train.
- Cargo platform with three variants of unloading.
- A full-size cockpit cab, which was equipped with the latest technology.
Low qualification of factory workers did not allow to create production of high-quality machines. KAZ-4540 had quite a number of shortcomings:
- Often the mechanism responsible for lifting the cabin failed.
- Frequent leaks of working fluids and oil at the junctions of the transmission and motor mechanisms.
- The injection pump was not able to produce the required parameters.
- Weak places were also rivets, responsible for fastening the front springs to the frame.
Some advantages with incorrectoperation and improper driving turned into shortcomings. The same load on both bridges allowed to increase the patency, but with aggressive driving there was a high probability of tipping the car. KAZ-4540, the characteristics of which are presented in the article, is still used in some regions of Russia, Ukraine and other countries of the former USSR.