Car executive class supremecategory ZIS-110 was established in 1945. The machine was intended for servicing the Kremlin nomenclature, government and ministers. The model was a load-bearing frame structure of increased strength, capable of withstanding the additional weight of the armored body, since the machine had to meet special safety requirements.
Starting to develop the model ZIS-110, the groupengineers tried to take into account the indifferent attitude of JV Stalin to the American car of the "Packard" brand. The Packard 180 Touring Sedan was produced as a basis for the project in 1941. The car ZIS-110 turned out to be more "Packard", but the appearance of the "American" as a whole was able to adopt. Was borrowed and the engine - row "eight". All other units and units were supposed to be used in domestic production.
The ZIS-110 model became a headache fordesigners at the development stage of the car safety belt. Since the machine was supposed to be armored, it was necessary to re-calculate all the body parameters. There was not enough free space in the doors, where the armored cars were located, the mechanisms of the window regulators were interfering. A heavy reinforced roof required more powerful body racks. With the plumage booking problems were less, wings, both front and rear, the hood and trunk lid allowed to build armored plates up to 8 millimeters thick. Armored modification received the index "115".
Overall and weight parameters:
- length of the car - 6000 mm;
- height - 1730 mm;
- width - 1960 mm;
- ground clearance - 200 mm;
- base wheel - 3760 mm;
- front track - 1520 mm;
- the rear track is 1600 mm;
- weight - 2575 kg;
- capacity of gas tank - 80 liters;
- fuel consumption - 23 liters per 100 kilometers, in a mixed mode.
The engine ZIS-110 petrol, with a carburetor injection, had the following parameters:
- configuration - in-line arrangement;
- working volume - 6005 cubic cm;
- torque - 392 Nm at 2000 rpm;
- number of cylinders - 8;
- the maximum capacity is 141 liters. from. at 3600 obor. in a minute;
- number of valves - 16;
- stroke of the piston - 108 mm;
- diameter of the cylinder - 90 mm;
- cooling - water;
- the recommended fuel is AI-72 gasoline.
The transmission is a three-stage mechanical synchronized. The switch of speeds lever, is located on a steering column on the right.
The first Soviet cars with independentfront suspension began to develop at the time when the ZIS-110 project was launched. Before that, all models, both cargo and passenger, were equipped with a beam of the front axle on the springs.
Since the "one-hundred-tenth" was developed asgovernment order, he became the very first model with an independent front suspension. The swivel mechanism was a king pin of a pin type, connected to a worm knot by means of an adjustable thrust. Left and right units of a forward suspension bracket were connected by a mobile bar of the cross-section stabilizer.
Rear suspension - a bridge with two semi-axles anda planetary differential operating in a hypoid lubricant. The whole structure was suspended on semi-elliptic springs. The hydraulic shock absorbers were installed in a military type, taken from a light armored personnel carrier, since the armored car had considerable weight. The whole system was rigidly connected by a beam of lateral stability.
The entire chassis was based on a riveted framefrom the channel. On the front side members of the engine was mounted. On top of the frame was mounted the body frame, then the wings, the hood, the trunk lid, all the interior equipment and, last but not least, the doors. The assembly was done manually, although it was believed that the car is produced serially. Each car was assembled by a team of four people, who later was responsible for the quality of work.
Government VMS was originally conceived asluxury representative car, in which you can invite foreign guests, ambassadors of foreign countries, other officials. Passenger seats were given special attention. To make them especially soft and comfortable, the pillows were filled with coconut limes, which have excellent springing properties. And regular covers, which were stretched from above, were sewn in several layers with gasket linters.
Seven-seater limousine never loadedcompletely, usually except for the driver in the car were two or three more people. Thus, it was possible to maintain the impression of a spacious cabin with a high level of comfort. In the garage of the Central Committee of the CPSU there was a special post for the dispatcher on loading. Knowing about the upcoming trips - to the airport, to the meeting of delegations, the maintenance of solemn events - this employee sent cars in the right amount, the benefit of them was more than enough.
In every car the floor was covered with expensive carpets -Persian or even Teke. Seats and door panels were lined with high-quality velor, leather upholstery at that time was not yet. There were no air conditioners either, but ventilation in ZIS-110 cars was considered quite efficient. Noiseless fans filled the lounge with fresh air continuously.
In winter, all ducts switched to the modeheating. The temperature in the cooling system was about ninety degrees Celsius, it was enough to heat the cabin. A portion of the hot air was drawn to the windshield to avoid its fogging. To quickly heat the interior space of the car, fans were also used, which drove the heat into the cabin through the deflectors.
On the dashboard in front of the driver were allnecessary sensors and indicators. The dashboard was compact and occupied a small part of the "torpedo". In the center was a speedometer with a dial of a rectangular shape. The arrow was illuminated with colored light bulbs. At a speed of no more than 60 kilometers per hour, the green burned, from sixty to 120 the yellow one, and at a speed of more than 120 km / h red was switched on. The scale of the speedometer was indicated by numbers without zeros. "6" - sixty kilometers per hour, "10" - one hundred miles an hour, "12" - one hundred and twenty kilometers per hour and so on.
All control sensors and instruments were signed,not indicated by icons or symbols. On the left of the speedometer were the gasoline level indicators in the tank and the water temperature in the cooling system. On the right there was an ammeter indicating the charging of the battery and the oil pressure sensor. In the same place were placed arrows of direction indicators, flashing red, a blue bulb (high beam) and green, indicating the ignition on.
To the right there was a radio receiver, below the tunerthe speaker was located. More to the right, opposite the passenger seat, was a built-in "glovebox" - a box for small things. The panel and the frames of the instruments, the steering wheel, the control levers were of classical ivory color, in this style all the first Soviet cars - ZIS, ZIL, Pobeda, Volga, Moskvich were designed.
In the USSR there was a tendency to produce carsserial cars in one, common to all models of the style. It was fashionable to decorate the exterior with chrome or nickel-plated details, moldings, decorative metal plates and nameplates. Soviet retro cars and today are characterized by an abundance of glittering attributes.
This is especially noticeable in the example of GAZ-21 "Volga",which windshield is encased in a chrome frame four centimeters wide, and the grille of the "whale whisker" type is the decoration of the entire front part of the car. Other retro cars of Soviet manufacture are also distinguished by spectacular sparkling elements.
In 1949, at the Stalin plant beganserial production of ZIS-110 with an open top at once in two versions - a phaeton and a cabriolet. Cars without a roof were required for festive departures of the high command of the Soviet Army, during military parades, and trips to the city in good weather for members of the Politburo and the government of the USSR together with foreign guests.
Model ZIS-110 "cabriolet" looked veryorganically in the streets of Moscow, when the motorcade of Kremlin limousines left the alignment of Tverskaya Street, crossed Red Square, drove to the Moskvoretsky Bridge and followed towards Bolshaya Ordynka. Convertibles had a folding roof made of soft black tarpaulin which, with the help of an electric drive, moved out of a special niche and covered the car in case of bad weather.
In addition to cabriolets, phaetons were produced, in whichthere were no rear door windows. These cars were used for the departure of the Minister of Defense, when he was taking a parade on Red Square on May 9. In the government garage there were three phaetons of ZIS-110 gray-blue. Two cars drove to the parade, and one was always ready, in reserve. Each car was equipped with a special stand in the middle of the cabin, for which the Minister of Defense or the person who replaced him was holding. Phaetons also had a retractable roof, but it was almost never used.
Repair and service
Representative cars ZIS-110 were going tomanually and passed comprehensive tests, and then followed the state acceptance. Therefore, there were no technical defects, breakdowns, engine failures and other mechanisms. The operation of the machines was low-intensive, each VMS for a year passed no more than fifteen thousand kilometers. Once in two years cars were written off, but none of them fell into private hands - individual possession of a government limousine was not allowed.
Maintenance was conducted regularly, according totechnical map, in specialized Kremlin workshops. In case of need of repair the car went to the center of diagnostics, and then - to the department of profile restoration. Spares ZIS-110 "received" strictly according to the results of technical expertise, but there was never a defect in them.
The assembly of one car cost in a roundamount, ZIS-110 was considered one of the most expensive objects of the Soviet car industry. But since the car was produced for the nomenklatura officials, there was never a conversation about the cost. Money was allocated in sufficient quantities and always on time.
Today ZIS-110 is a rare car,its value as a technical tool may not be high, but the history of the car generates truly sky-high prices. Any collection of old cars can be decorated with this model, released in the fifties of last century. ZIS-110, whose price varies from 185 thousand to half a million dollars, is a profitable investment of capital. The cost of the car will never fall below today's limit, it can only increase. This is the conjuncture of the market of rare Soviet cars.
During the production of the ZIS-110, six different modifications were produced:
- 110A - ambulance;
- 110B - the car with a body "phaeton";
- 110V - cabriolet with awning;
- 110P - all-wheel drive modification, experimental development;
- 110 SH - the car of management, staff;
- ZIS-115 - armored.