In order to reduce the friction between various interfaced parts of the car, in particular engine parts, to prolong their durability and improve performance, a lubrication system is needed.
In addition to the above functions, it also removes wear products, cools the engine parts, protects the ICE from corrosion.
The engine lubrication system of the car has the followingparts and devices: oil pressure switch, oil filter, oil cooler, oil pump, engine oil pan (including oil filler), pressure relief valve, oil channels and manifold.
All of the above lubrication system elementsThe engine performs certain functions and has its own purpose. In order to store oil, a crankcase pan is used. With the feeler gauge, the engine oil level is monitored, except for the oil level sensor and oil temperature sensor.
In order to pump oil into the system,An oil pump is required. It is activated by the engine crankshaft, camshaft or by means of an additional drive shaft. More common are oil pumps having a gear type.
Naturally, the lubrication system can not do withoutfilter: it cleans the oil of contaminants and wear and sludge products. The filter element is changed with the same periodicity as the oil. In order to cool the oil in the engine, an oil cooler is used.
To monitor the oil pressure,Special sensors, which are located in the oil line. The sensor emits an electrical signal, after which a corresponding light on the dashboard lights up.
On some models, the pressure sensor canto show the oil level in the engine, and at a dangerous operating pressure does not include the car motor. To maintain the oil pressure at a constant level, the lubrication system is equipped with one or two bypass valves. And their installation is usually done either in an oil pump or in a filter.
In modern engines, the lubrication system is most often used combined, that is, part of the parts are lubricated under pressure, and the rest - by gravity or by spraying.
The whole process is cyclical.During engine operation, the pump pumps oil into the system. After that, under pressure, the oil will fall into the filter. After cleaning the impurities, the channels will go to the crankshaft and crankshaft crankshafts, to the support of the camshaft, the upper support of the connecting rod itself. The remaining parts can be lubricated by spraying or gravity, forming a so-called oil mist. Then, under the action of gravity, the oil flows back to the sump pan and the cycle is repeated again.
Maintenance of the lubrication system is designed to prevent possible malfunctions and breakdowns. It can include the following types of work:
- checking the oil level in the crankcase, checking for leaks;
- compliance with the rules when starting a cold engine;
- verification of fastenings, cleaning of contamination of filters and sedimentation tanks;
- Change the oil and flush the entire system.
Maintenance, which needs a lubrication system, can be made both by the owner of the car, and by professionals in the service station.