Cows of Hereford breed are named so bythe name of the area in which they were once bred - the English county of Herefordshire, located on the border with Wales. Her tribal book has been in this country since 1846. The ancestor of the breed were red cows, which were cultivated by peasants in the south and west of England.
Selection of Hereford cows
Initially, the Hereford breed of cattle was bredAs a draft and designed specifically for meat. Attention to the dairy productivity of these animals was practically not given. Therefore, at the moment, this breed is valued above all for its large physique and adaptability to pastures of absolutely any type. Another undoubted advantage is considered early maturity and unpretentiousness. In addition to growing on meat, hereford cows are used as producers while improving the qualities of other breeds. Some of the latter are also very popular in our country. As an example, you can bring a white-headed Kazakh breed.
The Hereford breed of meat cows is differentwell muscled front end and heavy weight. The constitution of these animals can be described as very strong, if not to say rough. Purely this breed can be recognized by its white head (dominant feature), abdomen, neck, sometimes back, and also a tail brush and nasolabial area. In other places the wool of animals is red-brown. The head and neck of the Hereford cows are short and wide. The horns are directed forward, sideways and slightly upward, painted white and have dark tips. The trunk of these animals is long, and the legs are short. Another distinctive feature of the breed is thick skin, strong muscles and underdeveloped mammary glands.
Characteristics of the breed
In addition to heavy weight, the Hereford breed of cows(photo of which can be seen on this page) is characterized by fertility and longevity. The birth in animals is very easy, and the mortality of calves is low. It is very easy to keep these cows, because they are not aggressive or wayward in nature and very easy to handle.
At this point the Hereford breed is consideredone of the most common in the world. Its popularity is due primarily to unpretentiousness, including food. Another remarkable feature of these animals is that they adapt very quickly to the climatic conditions of a given locality. For example, even in severe Russian winters these animals can be kept almost in the open air.
Quality of meat
Cows of Hereford breed aretasty "marble" (with fatty interlayers) succulent meat. Among other things, it is distinguished by its fine fiber and nutritional content. These qualities are inherited even when crossed with other breeds of cows. Slaughter yield of meat can vary from 65 to 70%.
Another reason for the popularity of this breedis the excellent quality of its skins. Thick and elastic, it is very suitable for making shoes, insoles for it and soles. Make of her and other tan products.
Cost of young animals
You can buy the Hereford calves bytoo high a price. At the beginning of 2015, it is about 100-130 rubles per kilogram of live weight when bought wholesale for farms and 130-160 rubles for the purchase of one head by private traders. Since the suckling of this breed is grown up to 8 months, most of all offers of individuals of this age.
Features of development
Cows of Hereford breed grow very quickly.Already at one-year-old age, the calves reach a weight of about 270 kg, bull-calves - 320 kg. By one and a half years, this indicator increases to 396 and 430 kg, respectively. At birth, the calves live weight is 31-36 kg. The average daily growth in its subsequent fluctuates from 850 to 1300 grams. The height of adult cows at the withers is 130-140 cm, the calves are 135-150 cm. The chest's circumference is 190-195 cm in bunches, 210-215 cm in calves.
Contents of cows with suckling calves
Because milk is a Hereford breed of cows,the characteristics of which are given above, gives very little, animals do not milk. Therefore, the calves are kept on the sump for up to 8 months. At the same time, the most acceptable is the technology of free-standing maintenance on open-air areas and lightened premises. An animal shed must be clean, dry and free from drafts. In it it is necessary to arrange a lair for cows with calves, located along the perimeter. In the middle, you should install feeders with waterers. Also need to provide a separate enclosure for calves, in which they will receive additional food. At the very end of the barn, a room for calving is usually arranged. Here cows are cited 2-3 days before the appearance of the calf and contain a week after birth. In summer, animals are transferred to a free or grazing paddock.
Feeding cows with suckling calves and bulls-producers
The diet of mothers, feeding young, shouldContain 45% of coarse feed, 20% concentrate, 25% silage. As a mineral fertilizer use bone meal, defluorinated phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, etc.
Bull-producers need to give beans and hay of good quality, concentrates and juicy feed. For 100 kg of live weight give 1 unit, 100 gr. proteins, 5-6 g. phosphorus, 7 g. calcium.
Since in the food the cows of the Hereford breed are not too capricious, the individuals bred for meat can be fed simply with hay, adding to it barley groats and salt.
Feeding of suckling calves
The newborn needs to be admitted to the mother forreceiving milk for a maximum of 1-1.5 hours after delivery. Up to three months of age it will be its main food. You can begin to feed hay with 15-20 days. Up to three months of age, 0.4 k. Up to 6 months - 2-2.3 units, up to 8 - 3.5 k. Units. If the calf by the half-year gains 200 kg of weight, it can be taken from the cow. This will help improve reproductive ability and weight gain.
In the initial period of fertilizing, in addition to roughage, you can use juicy, in the end - add concentrated.
Where the Hereford cows are bred
This wonderful breed is very suitablefor breeding in steppe regions with a sharp continental climate. Abroad, it is bred in countries such as Australia, Canada, the United States, some countries in Europe. At us in the country of the best results at cultivation of calves of this breed achieve in the Orenburg area. Cows of this breed are very common and not bad in the steppes of Kazakhstan.
As you can see, hereford breed is unpretentious,quickly gaining weight and does not require too much investment. It is very easy to care for these cows, and calves and meat can be obtained from them a lot. Taking all these factors into account, the breeding of Herefords in both private farms and large farms is more than advisable.