Modern medicine makes extensive use of variousmethods of research of the organism in order to make a diagnosis in time, to determine the tactics of treatment. With the development of medical care itself, these methods are becoming more complicated, but in most cases, everything usually begins with a simple blood test.
Blood test and decoding in children isThe main source of information about the health of the baby. Even if the child does not have any pronounced manifestations of any disease, doctors recommend doing this procedure as a general blood test for prophylactic purposes no less than once every six months. And there are several good reasons for this. A recent survey by the Institute of Pediatrics found that 80% of the child population suffers a hidden form of anemia. This is especially true for unfavorable regions of the country. Outwardly, this condition may not manifest any painful symptoms, but in such children there is a significant lag in physical development and a decrease in immunity, expressed in frequent colds.
A blood sample is usually taken from the distal.pads of the middle finger with a sterile disposable scarifier, so that there is no need to fear the transmission of any infection. A few drops of fresh blood are applied to a sterile glass slide and fixed. A blood test and transcript in children are carried out only by a specialist with a higher education. That is, the laboratory issues only numbers, and only a doctor can interpret them in terms of diagnosing a child of a disease. In large medical centers, this may be a hematologist, but in the vast majority of cases, the process is performed by a district pediatrician.
What can a blood test and transcript show in children and what does the doctor look at first?
The number of red blood cells (red blood cells) insample and hemoglobin level. Normal performance is at least 4.0 on / l of red blood cells and at least 120 g / l of hemoglobin. Lower numbers already indicate anemia.
Of the cellular composition of the blood is also importantwhite blood cell count (white blood cells). They should be at least 9 -9.5 per / l. In addition to their total number, their composition is also important, since among them there is a division into basophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Together they make up the so-called "leukocyte formula", which the blood test and interpretation in children displays from left to right. Specialists often use the term “leukocyte shift to the left,” which means an increase in the number of white blood cells in the left part of the formula, that is, neutrophils and eosinophils. This usually indicates an acute inflammatory process (including infectious) in a child. But the “shift of the leukocyte formula to the right” (lymphocytes and monocytes) indicates a tendency to allergic reactions. In some cases, with the usual formula of “white” blood, only an increase in the number of eosinophils is observed, an experienced doctor can say about the presence of parasitic invasion in the body (ascariasis, Giardiasis, etc.)
An important indicator that reflects a blood testand deciphering in children is ESR or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Normally, the figure should not exceed 10-15 mm per hour. An increase in this indicator is a sure sign of the presence of a pathological focus of inflammation in the body.
Platelets (cells responsible for clottingblood) must be at least 2-3 per / liter of blood. A decrease in their number or a violation of the form may indicate a hereditary disease (thrombocytopenia), which should be treated as soon as possible.
Blood tests in children, as in adults, are notlimited to general analysis. In some cases, especially for various forms of jaundice, a biochemical blood test is required, which is taken from the vein and also on an empty stomach. Direct and indirect bilirubin, the enzymes AST, ALT, are already looking here to assess liver function and other numbers that are understandable only to specialists.
Generally, blood is considered as one of the tissues.body (along with muscles, bones) only in liquid form. Each person's blood cells are relatively quickly updated (on average once every 3-4 years). There is even a method to determine the sex of the child to update the blood. The essence of it in brief is as follows: in women, starting from the age of 15 (we do not take into account the younger one), the blood undergoes renewal once in 3 years. And in men, from the age of 16, once every 4 years. It is believed that whose blood is younger, the child will be of such sex. The method is rather controversial, as in general all non-medical methods of "programming" the sex of the unborn child, but nonetheless are no worse and no better than others.