The Slavic nationalities of linen cloth has becomeknown somewhere in the 9th century. Due to the properties of the fibers of the plant, textiles and clothing were simultaneously thin and durable, allowing the use of the products for a long time. Unlike other countries, flax was not a luxury. Clothing could be seen in representatives of various social classes. The difference was in the thickness of the fibers, the finish and the color of the fabric.
Since the Empress Catherine II allowed the export of linen threads outside the state, most of the weaving factories in Europe worked on fibers grown in the Russian Empire.
Plant, growing conditions, distribution areas
Cultural flax, which is used fordifferent industrial targets, there are different types. Basically, the culture is grown to produce seeds, fibers or oil. It is the flax-dolgunets used for the production of fabrics. The stems from which the fibers are produced can be different, the quality of the obtained yarns depends on them.
Flax is whimsical in growing. It is best to grow the plant in regions with a moderate climate and non-black soils. Very demanding culture to the composition of the soil, mineral fertilizers in it and the weather - the precipitation during the period of aging can ruin the entire crop. In this case, shoots appear in early spring, at a temperature of + 4-5 degrees, and can withstand frosts to -4 degrees. From the time of the appearance of the first shoots to the harvesting of flax, it takes from 68 to 84 days. In Russia, culture is grown in various areas, in areas that are estimated in thousands of hectares. But very few lands are given for cultivating the variety, which gives the best raw materials for the production of fine fabrics. Therefore, the products are quite expensive.
Production and processing of linen fibers
To obtain the most high-quality and thinthere is a certain time for harvesting, because the thinner the raw material obtained, the better the linen cloth. The stems of the plant should be light yellow, the seed boxes green. Flax is collected together with roots and soaked, so that the necessary fibers are separated without obstructions from other tissues. Then it is dried and sent to production.
Further processing is not very different from the one used in antiquity. Flax wrinkles, teasing and combing. Only in modern plants such operations produce machines.
How is fabric made from linen fibers
The production of linen fabrics is sufficientexpensive for several reasons. First of all, it is the complexity of processing a plant. In addition, flax-dolgunets are of different varieties, and the quality of fabric and the complexity of production directly depend on it. Linen fabric can be thin or thick, rough or smooth, depending on the length of the resulting plant fibers.
Once the crop is harvested, the raw materials are fed tofactories for processing of flax. After treatment, a long and short fiber is obtained on the trephine machine, which, although considered a waste, is used to produce such a product as coarse linen fabric.
The received threads are checked on the technicalCharacteristics with GOSTs and are distributed for further processing. Long fibers are used for textile production in the textile industry. Of stucco excellent basis for finishing materials and floor coverings. Waste fibers, not corresponding to any of the standards, are used in construction in the form of pakli.
Types of fabrics
Linen cloth is divided into technical andhousehold. However, the former are produced in greater quantities than the latter, since cheaper substitutes made of chemical fibers or nonwovens have been found. They can be by content pure linen or mixed. To do this, they add cotton, viscose, lavsan.
Depending on the purpose, linen clothis divided into a towel, dining room, canvas, costume, dressing, canvas, canvas, bed linen and linen. For sewing clothes are used such as cambric, bortovka, matting, kolomenok, fine linen. Canvases for drawing are made from ash and canvas. Teak and damask are used for furniture upholstery. Overalls, shoes, tourist accessories are made of canvas.
Properties of linen fiber fabrics
Despite the variety of fabrics and materials, fromwhich they produce, linen remains in demand. This is due to its features and qualities. First of all, it is worth noting the high hygroscopicity of the fabric: it perfectly absorbs moisture. Thanks to the use of linen clothes, you can avoid a heat stroke, or, more simply, overheat. Fabric perfectly cools in the heat and heats in the cold. In addition, it does not accumulate static electricity, which positively affects the overall well-being.
All the properties of linen cloth can be listedlong, what is its ability to oppress pathogens. It acts as an antiseptic, therefore it is not only environmentally friendly, but also very hygienic. In addition, linen fabric does not cause allergies, which allows its use for children's textiles, medicine and in those places where an increased level of sterility is required.
All things that use the fibers of this plant have a long service life, are easy to clean and well worn. Clothes made of flax do not turn yellow, and in time only bleached.
A fly in the ointment
The biggest drawback of linen fabric isthat it is very difficult to iron after washing. However, the process can be simplified by exposing slightly damp things to ironing or using an iron with steaming. Keep clothes from such material better on a hanger in a chiffonier, and not in a closet on the shelf. Then things will last longer.