Surely many of those who have their owngarden, although one had to see the consequences to which the tobacco mosaic virus leads. From this article you will learn how to prevent the appearance of this disease in tomatoes.
A Brief Historical Reference
For the first time this disease was recorded at the end of XIXcentury in the process of growing tobacco. On the infected bush there were bright marks. Over time, he began to lose form and eventually died. After that, the disease gradually spread to neighboring plants and after a short time whole plantations became unfit for further cultivation.
The only way of fighting at that timeconsidered the complete destruction of infected seedlings. Such measures allowed preserving the remaining plants. Many years after the discovery of this disease, Dr. Ivanovsky was able to identify its cause. It was the tobacco mosaic virus.
Mechanism of development and biology
The causative agent of this disease is characterized by resistance to external factors. It is established that the virus is able to persist even in conditions of elevated temperatures.
Tobacco mosaic completely infects tissuesplants at the cellular level. The cause of its occurrence is the partial disintegration of chlorophyll and damage to chloroplasts. As the plastids break down, carbohydrate levels decrease. As a result, the mechanism of the dying off of individual parts of the tissue is activated. The causative agents of the disease are Solanum virus 1, Cummis virus 2 and Nicotina virus 1.
In the beginning, the leaves on which the tobaccomosaic, become mottled. The color of the spots can vary. They are whitish, bright green or light yellow. Gradually, the leaves begin to wrinkle and deform, acquiring a filiform or fern-like shape.
In addition, tobacco mosaic leads togrinding and uneven maturation of fruits. The growth and growth of the infected plant is slowed down. Due to the violation of water metabolism, leaves and stems dry up. The first to die are young shoots. Damaged fruit is covered with brown marks and begins to rot.
How does infection occur?
Tobacco mosaic of tomatoes can be transmitted toas a result of contact with infected cultures or in case of mechanical damage that occurs during processing. Often, infection occurs during diving of thick seedlings.
Tobacco mosaic also spreadshelp such carriers as bugs, aphids and other insects. The virus can be transmitted through seeds and fruits carried by animals and birds. The main source of infection is the soil, located under the roots of sick tomatoes. This is explained by the fact that plant remains can remain in it. Especially rapidly develops a mosaic in conditions of high humidity. It has been established that raindrops flowing from leaves of infected plants can become a vector of infection.
Tobacco mosaic: treatment and prevention
This infection can destroy about 20%of the whole harvest. Therefore, it must be fought with. To protect your plants, you must use only high-quality planting material. Seeds, boxes and other garden tools are recommended to handle a 5% solution of potassium permanganate. Such manipulations must be carried out for four consecutive days.
To prevent possible infectionfuture harvest, do not neglect preventive measures. So, it is important to vaccinate tomatoes with an aggressive strain. When planting plants in the greenhouse, appropriate protective measures must be taken. To decontaminate the seeds, they are recommended to be pre-conditioned in a 20% solution of hydrochloric acid and thoroughly rinsed under a stream of clean running water. Also, the soil should be steamed by watering it with boiling water for two or three hours.
At least once a week, seedlingsit is recommended to treat with milk, diluted with ordinary water in a ratio of 1:10. Among other things, it is important to make timely replacement of the soil in the greenhouse, removing from it a ten-centimeter layer together with plant remains.
One week before disembarkation into the soil and throughfourteen days after her sprouts should be sprinkled with a 1% solution of boric acid. Due to this, it will become more resistant to viruses. You can not neglect and measures aimed at the destruction of insects, which can become potential carriers of the causative agent of the mosaic. Also, in order to prevent the likely spread of tobacco mosaic tomatoes, experts recommend the processing of greenhouses, collect and burn autumn leaves and old plant roots.