The most important elements of the rigging of independentwater supply systems for private houses and dachas, which are serviced by underground wells or water sources of considerable depth, are well pumps. Submersible deep well pumps provide not only pumping out the liquid, but also its further transportation through the pipeline.
Pumps that are capable of pumping water withlarge depths exceeding 90 meters, are used as equipment of underground wells for industrial purposes, as well as for stations feeding two or more objects or houses at once.
The market offers the buyer a wide range of foreign and domestic appliances, which differ in their cost, characteristics and purpose.
Picking up the pump, you should make a small calculation of the main parameters, as well as read the reviews about the manufacturers.
Given the recommendations, you can purchase the most suitable device or system.
Types of submersible downhole pumps
For a well with a depth of 10meters and more, the installation of a submersible (deep) pump is required. The use of such equipment allows pumping water from a depth of up to 150 meters. A great advantage of using such pumps is the low noise level during operation.
There are the following types of pumps:
1. Submersible centrifugal well pump.
2. Screw conveyor.
3. The screw.
The first species is the most popular.The centrifugal pump can be used in any season of the year and at any ambient temperature. The principle of operation is based on the action of centrifugal force: the pressure of incoming water turns the blades, while the water is moved. Further, a head is created, which pushes the liquid out into the pipeline. In this case, a rarefaction of air is created in the center of the working chamber. This factor facilitates the absorption of a new flow of water into it.
A great advantage of installations of this typeis their high productivity, constant good pressure of pumped water, as well as the versatility of use. Such pumps can be used in various fields of activity.
Screw type installations (eg, pumpwell submersible "Aquarius") belong to special purpose devices. The working body of the device is a screw. It provides pumping of water, as well as its further movement through the pipeline. Such installations are used mainly for pumping heavily polluted water.
Choosing for the well a screw-type pump,it should be remembered that the diameter of its housing should be less than the cross section of the casing. If this requirement can not be sustained, there is a possibility of frequent clogging and breakage of the installation.
Submersible well pumps (deepwell screw type) have a number of advantages, the main of which is the ability to pump even a small amount of liquid with a good head. Pumping of water with such equipment is carried out due to the rotation of the working impeller, which is equipped with a number of dense blades.
Before buying a screw pump, you should analyze the composition of the water, because the screw type device is very sensitive to various impurities and contaminants.
Pump-type pumps are also popular.The main working body for the construction of such instruments is a fixed cylinder and a plunger. Making forward movements in the inner part of the cylinder upwards, the plunger "tightens" the water, and when lowering, it delivers it to the pressure main. To activate the mechanism, a "rocking chair" is used, which is attached with bars.
Downhole sucker rod pumps have large dimensions. The main field of their application is the oil-producing and oil-refining industries. They are practically not used in everyday life.
Principle of operation and features
Modern instrument making produces the mostVarious designs for the design, purpose and principle of operation of deep well pumps. When choosing, one should be guided by operating conditions, terrain characteristics and other parameters.
The pump housing is completely submergedpumped water, and with the surface and the mains it is connected by an electric conductor, which ensures the operation of the electric motor, and the pipeline through which water is transported.
As standard, most pump models include:
• the electric motor that drives the unit;
• Built-in trap filter, which protects the device from contamination.
The water is pumped throughdischarge nozzle, which is located in the upper or lower part of the housing. In the first case, the pump qualitatively filters the pumped water from various contaminants and solid inclusions.
The main components of the downhole pump are:
• electric motor (built-in or external);
• Pump part.
If the downhole pump is equipped with a first electric motor, its housing must absolutely be hermetic and must not allow liquid to enter the working units.
Submersible well pumps UNIPUMP intendedfor use in domestic conditions and are used to supply only pure water without impurities of salts from various water bodies, a diameter of at least 8.5 cm. They are used for supplying water to individual houses, watering areas, storing liquid in small and medium storage tanks.
Main technical characteristics:
- power is supplied from the mains - ~ 220/230 V, 50 Hz;
- operating temperature of the pumped water is 0 ... +35 ° С;
- acidity of water - 6,5 ... 8,5;
- ambient temperature - 0 ... +40 ° С;
- the minimum depth of immersion required for the thickness of the water is 0.5 m;
- permissible amount of impurities and contaminants in pumped water - no more than 100 g / m³, without large inclusions;
- the maximum size of contaminants and inclusions is 1 mm;
- power consumption: 370 W;
- depth of submersion under water (permissible) - 15 m;
- the maximum productivity: 33,3 l / min .;
- maximum head: 73 m;
- diameter of the discharge port: 1 ";
- length of supply cable: 15 m.
Advantages and disadvantages in using deep pumps
Among the advantages of using submersible centrifugal well pumps installed in a reservoir, it should be noted:
• greater efficiency and productivity of pumping water;
• possibility of forming a good head;
• Simplicity of installation;
• ease of use;
• Simplicity in maintenance;
• high reliability;
• Long service life.
The disadvantages are:
• impossibility of repairing some models due to a monolithic case;
• The difficulty in transferring contaminated water (or water from the bottom of a well or well).
How to choose the right pump
When choosing a submersible downhole pump, consider:
1. The head of the water column flow. This parameter is determined by calculation. From its value depends the quality of pressure in all water intake points.
2. Flow performance. It is measured by the number of liters of water supplied per hour. It depends on it whether there will be enough pumped water to meet the needs of all water intake points.
3. The need to equip additional elements. They ensure the operation of the installation in an independent mode, and also protect it from breakages due to emergencies.
4. Manufacturer and brand.Choosing a device for this parameter, you should take into account the reputation of the manufacturer of submersible downhole pumps, reviews, as well as the guarantees that it provides.
5. Cost.Manufacturers can overstate the cost because of the world name. You should pay attention to the domestic manufacturer, because the quality is not inferior to foreign ones. Also in the device can be installed additional functions that are not necessary, but certainly affect the pricing. First of all, you should pay attention to the quality of assembly and components, and then to the cost.
Calculating the head of water supplied by the pump
Water pressure, which provides a submergedwell pump, determined by calculation. For this, it is necessary to take into account the hydro resistivity of the entire pipeline system. The calculation formula is as follows:
H = (A + 6) x 1.15 + B + L / 10,
H is the required pressure;
A - the maximum permissible height, which is required to ensure the supply of water through the pipeline;
B is the depth of the reservoir to be served (measured from the upper part to the level of the water mirror);
L is the distance over which the water is transported through the pipeline in the horizontal direction.
Having obtained the calculated parameter, it is possible to proceed with the selection of the pump.
Important! When choosing a pump to the design value of the head, add another 10%.
Additional power reserves will avoidcritical situations and will save the pump from breakdowns that occur in connection with the seasonal pressure drop. Do not buy a device with a very large margin of power - it will be economically impractical.
How to choose a pump for performance
Submersible well pumps should not onlyto provide a given head of water in the pipeline, but also to supply it in a certain amount per unit time. To determine the required amount of water, it is necessary to determine the total fluid intake that is consumed from one system, and multiply the result by the number of people living in the house.
In addition, you should add expense for irrigation, work of household appliances, etc.
Having determined the estimated productivity, a model with the best characteristics is selected.
When choosing a deep pump, you should purchaseadditional technical devices that will ensure the effectiveness of its functioning and protect it from negative effects of emergencies. These devices include:
• water level sensor in the reservoir;
• pressure meter;
• Water flow velocity sensor;
• non-return valve.
The use of these devices allows the automatic operation of the deep pump.
Which is better: pump or station?
For lifting and further moving along thethe mains of liquid from a water body of great depth are used not only by the pumps listed, but also entire pumping stations, which consist of a set of technical devices.
In the pumping station, except for the wellsubmersible pump for water, the accumulating tank - accumulator accumulates. The water that is pumped out of the well or well is first accumulated in this tank and only then distributed through the pipeline system.
In comparison of a pumping station and a deep pumpthe first has higher performance. In addition, it is characterized by considerable dimensions. These parameters should also be taken into account when purchasing and choosing the place for its installation. In addition, the arrangement of the station is much more expensive than the purchase of a submersible pump.
In any case, when choosing equipment forequipping the water supply system of a private house should take into account the parameters of the reservoir from which water is to be pumped, as well as its required quantity for water supply needs, flow parameters, etc.
Modern pumps and reviews about them
Popular among users recognized the following settings:
- Submersible submersible pump Grundfos.The Danish device is high-quality, has high performance. Some models are able to pump up to 9 tons of water per hour, the head at the same time is 50 meters. Warranty period - 10 years. Automatic control saves the system from dry running and provides a smooth start. The scope of delivery includes: a deep pump, a hydraulic accumulator, an automation unit, a shut-off and control armature. The disadvantages are: high cost of Grundfos (about 50,000 rubles), a small amount of accumulator (8-10 liters), expensive repairs.
- Vortical well pump SPRUT.It is intended for supplying clean water from wells, cisterns and wells. Suitable for water supply of a private house. Users note that the pump is quite powerful, operates on an artesian well and creates a head to 70 meters. The body is made of brass, as is the impeller. All working units are made of high-quality materials, and therefore, they are durable. Among the shortcomings is a low degree of protection and a small purifying capacity.
- Centrifugal multistage well pump"PUMPS +". This device is designed for pumping only clean water (without blockages) from wells with a diameter of at least 9 cm and wells. Excellent for use in private water supply systems, watering areas, irrigation systems and increasing pressure using pressure maintenance systems. The pump is designed for long-term operation and withstands high loads.
Reviews of manufacturers
Users have identified the most reliable manufacturers and their devices. Among them are:
1. Submersible well pump Unipump eco.A household appliance is able to supply water from a well out of great depths. It is also possible to install these pumps in the water supply system. Among the advantages: a reliable body and engine, powerful impellers (made of reinforced plastic). The "floating" work of such wheels can prolong the life of the mechanism. Also the pump is resistant to dirt. A thermal relay and a starting capacitor are additionally mounted in the pump casing. The disadvantage is the high cost. Also, users note that the pump can not be installed on a well with a diameter of less than 110 mm.
2. Submersible well pump ECV.This device is suspended in a well on a special installation, which consists of columns of water-lifting pipes and descends into the water. Each stage of this ECV pump consists of an impeller, a scoop and a reservoir. Water flows through the body of the base onto a plastic (or bronze) impeller. The ECB bearing assembly is lubricated with pumped water. Among the positive characteristics: convenient use, relatively quiet operation. Also, users note that the pump is able to withstand head pressure even at short-term stops. Among the shortcomings: high cost, rapid wear of plastic parts and "fear" of dry running.
3. Submersible borehole pump Patriot.Users note the following positive characteristics: the device is installed at a great depth (up to 30 m) and provides a head up to 100 m. The pump consumes only 500 W and filters impurities up to 2 mm in size. "Patriot" has a normal throughput - up to 2 m3 at one o'clock. The disadvantages are the instability to pollution and high temperature of the supplied water.
Having determined the criteria necessary for the consumer, and also having familiarized with user feedback, you can choose the best installation.