First of all, Korney Ivanovich ChukovskyHe is known as the author of children's poems about Moidodyr and flying chairs. But also the writer was a literary critic and advocated for the preservation of a lively, vibrant Russian language. The book “Living as Life” (first published in 1962) devoted to this issue has become a classic. We will talk about its content today.
Chapter One: "The Old and the New"
The story of the famous lawyer and academicianAnatolia Koni opens the first chapter of "Living as Life" (Chukovsky), a brief summary of which we will now examine. Anatoly Fedorovich was a man of very great kindness. But only until the moment I heard the absurd Russian speech. There was no limit to his anger, although often the interlocutor was not really guilty.
The fact is that at that time the honorary academician wasalready old He was born and grew up in those times when the word "necessarily" meant "kindly, respectfully." But it acquired a different meaning over time, and now meant "by all means." Everyone who used the word "necessarily" in the meaning of "by all means" immediately fell under the barrage of criticism.
Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky tells in this book about these changes in the language, and whether it is always bad, about the “illnesses” of the Russian language and another.
Chapter Two: "Imaginary Diseases and - Genuine"
What can be considered a "disease of the word"? The book "Living as Life" (Chukovsky), the genre of which can be defined as a cross between journalism and linguistic research, helps to clarify this issue.
Did you know that in the verses of Pushkin the word"scrupulous" has a completely unusual meaning for us - "haberdashery"? The word "family", so familiar, at first meant slaves and servants, and then - wife. Interesting "pedigree" and the word "mess". At first this was the name of a very exquisite dish of the 17th century, beloved by the boyars. Then they started to call a pain in the abdomen caused by a nasty talker. Soldiers' chefs threw unpeeled fish in the sand, onions, crackers, sauerkraut and all that was at hand into the cauldron. And only then the “mess” gained the familiar meaning of “confusion, disorder”.
These transformations are natural, the language grows and develops, and it is impossible and even stupid to resist it, the author believes.
Chapter Three: "Foreign Words"
This chapter is a logical continuation.previous one. The book "Living as Life" (Chukovsky), a brief summary of which we are discussing, would be incomplete without foreign words. A lot of letters were written to Korney Chukovsky by ordinary people who care about the preservation of the Russian language. Many believed that foreign words should be banished as quickly as possible.
The author gives examples of foreign words thatAlready became Russian: algebra, alcohol, stockings, artel, rally, steering wheel, rails, naive, serious ... "Is it really possible to throw them out of the lively Russian language?" - asks Chukovsky. At the same time, he rejoices that many foreign words did not take root in everyday life and did not force out the native Russians. For example, the once popular "fristik" never comes to the language of an ordinary person. Instead, we "have breakfast."
Chapter Four: Umslopogasy
Fashionable verbal abbreviations are not able tospoil the Russian language. But in the work “Living as Life” (Chukovsky), the analysis of which we carry out, an entire chapter is devoted to them. And for good reason. It is the abbreviations that show how important moderation is in everything. For example, abbreviations such as the Moscow Art Theater, savings bank, workday did not spoil the Russian language.
But the fashion for cuts has generated and many"monsters". Tverbul Pampush really is Tversky Boulevard, a monument to Pushkin. Mass-abbreviated names — Petr Pavlovich was becoming Pe Pa for both students and fellow teachers. But worst of all were the cuts-pallindromes Rosglavstankoinstrumentsnabsbyt, Lengorshveittrikotazhpromsoyuz, Lengormetallloprompromsoyuz and others of this type.
From this it is necessary to conclude one of the main ones: it all comes down to a sense of style and proportion.
Chapter Five: Vulgarisms
Readers of the 1960s often considered“obscene” are such words, so “sivolapy”, “pants”, “stench”, “rubbish”, “blow your nose” and many others like them, which are absolutely natural for modern man. The author recalls an angry letter addressed to him for using the word "champing" in the article.
Quite another thing is modern slangyouth, wrote in "Live as Life" Chukovsky. The summary of the chapter is reduced to the fact that such slang as “Fuflo”, “entered” (instead of “fell in love”), “chick”, “kadrishka” (instead of “girl”), “lobud”, “shikara” and other things do not defile only Russian, but also concepts which they designate young people.
The author correctly observes that the dude whovshendyapilsya in kadrishku, experiencing is not the sublime feelings of love, which are described in the verses of Alexander Blok. The decomposition of the language through vulgarism leads to the decomposition of the moral, so the jargon should be zealously eradicated.
Chapter Six: "Office"
It is the book by Korney Chukovsky "Living as Life"gave the name of the only real "disease" of the Russian language - the clerk. This term is used by linguists, including the translator Nora Gal in the book "The Word is alive and dead."
Office is the language of bureaucracy, business papers andoffices. All these "above", "this certificate is issued", "specified period", "on the basis of this", "and therefore", "for lack of", "due to lack of", "as for" have firmly taken their place in business documentation ( while sometimes reaching the point of absurdity).
The problem is that the clerical has penetrated the usualcolloquial. Now, instead of "green forest" they began to say "green array", the usual "quarrel" has become a "conflict", and so on. These speech turns, borrowed from paperwork, became the "litmus test." It was believed that every cultured, well-educated person should have such words in his vocabulary.
Say on the radio "Gone heavy rains"was considered rustic and uncultured. Instead, it sounded "Heavy rain fell." Unfortunately, the problem of the clerk has not disappeared. Today, this disease has strengthened its position even more. No scientist can defend a dissertation written in simple, understandable language. In everyday life, we constantly insert clerical phrases without noticing it. So alive, strong, sparkling Russian colloquial speech turns into gray and dry. And this is the only disease of the language with which to fight.
Chapter Seven: "Against the Elements"
Many perceive the Russian language as an element, withwhich is impossible to cope with. So writes in "Live as Life" Chukovsky. The summary of the last, seventh chapter is reduced to the fact that at the time when knowledge is available for everyone, ordinary and evening schools are open, no one has the right to be illiterate, not to respect their language.
All the wrong words and speech patterns must be eradicated, and the culture of the masses must grow, not fall. And just speaking is an indicator of the growth or decline of culture.
TO.Chukovsky his research marked the beginning of a great debate around the Russian language. He did not adhere to any one side and proceeded from carefully verified data and a sense of proportion. Like K.Paustovsky, Korney Ivanovich was very fond of the Russian language, which is why Living Alive as Life today is a book that everyone must read before reading - both linguists and those who want to fall in love with a lively, simple Russian speech.