In one of the most beautiful places in St. Petersburg,Not far from the place called New Holland, there is a museum that tells about the history of the Russian navy. It is one of the richest collections in the world of models of ships, collections of weapons, navigation instruments, documents and other exhibits associated with the naval forces of the state. This is the Central Naval Museum - the brainchild of Emperor Peter the Great.
Experience brought from abroad
At the junction of the XVII and XVIII centuries, during itstrips to Holland and England — countries that at that time held a leading global position in shipbuilding — Peter I studied in detail the organization of business in their shipyards. Among other things, his attention was attracted by the then widespread model cameras. At the same time, these departments acted as storages, where models and drawings of ready-made, launched ships, as well as design workshops, in which designs of new ships were developed, were received.
Returning to Russia, the emperor ordered to enterSt. Petersburg is a similar innovation, the utility and significance of which were not in doubt. So in 1707, a domestic camera model appeared on the banks of the Neva, which was an analogue of Western designs. It was located in the Admiralty building, adjacent to the shipyards.
Beginning of the future collection
Peter I issued a decree according to whichThe collection of model cameras was constantly expanded and replenished with new exhibits. Models of not only ships built at the shipyard, but also those that were captured in naval battles began to arrive here. All of them were subject to detailed study. Over time, this repository became the basis on which the St. Petersburg Naval (Central) Museum was established.
By the mid-thirties of the 18th century, functionsmodel cameras have expanded considerably. She gradually became a kind of design bureau where new ship designs were created and their scale models were made. The future Central Naval Museum was actively replenished with all sorts of navigation documentation, armaments and various marine instruments.
The new status of the former model camera
A new stage in the life of the brainchild of Peter I came in 1805year Then, by order of the Russian autocrat Alexander I, the model camera received a new status. It was transformed into the Maritime Museum. Its funds have expanded significantly due to the addition of collections of materials from the library of the Admiralty College. This scientific and educational center has become one of the largest in the world.
Largely museum expositionreplenished with all sorts of rarities brought from travel by many famous Russian navigators. Nowadays, the Central Naval Museum of St. Petersburg offers ample opportunities to explore their lives and activities.
The years of the decline of the museum
Ascended the throne in 1825, Nicholas Iturned out to be a man short-sighted. In his opinion, the Maritime Museum and its collections were not of great interest and were of little use. In 1827, this scientific and educational center is transferred to the jurisdiction of the Hydrographic Depot, and then completely disbanded. A unique collection of exhibits goes on storage in various government agencies, including the Kunstkamera. The Naval Central Museum in St. Petersburg is once again becoming a model camera. In her collection remains only about five hundred exhibits.
Deep state crisis and the need for reform
As a result of defeat in the Crimean militarycampaign and the deep crisis that gripped the state, it became apparent the need for radical transformations in all areas of Russian life, including the reform of the navy. In an era when the ships of the leading countries had already switched to steam engines, received armored protection and modern weapons, the Russian squadron was still sailing. Along with the problems of technical equipment of ships, it was also necessary to reconsider the approach to the preparation and training of crews as soon as possible.
The revival of the museum and the restoration of its exhibits
This gave impetus to the fact that in 1867 there wasA decision was made to revive the Maritime Museum. One of the main tasks assigned to his new leadership was the collection of previous exhibits scattered across numerous institutions. In addition, at the expositions it was important to present samples of the most progressive at that time technical developments.
This task was brilliantly performed by the newly appointedthe director of the museum is a talented gunsmith Lieutenant N. M. Baranov. Thus, the future Central Museum of the Navy opened a new page in its history. In 1908, during celebrations related to the bicentennial, the museum was named after its founder, Peter the Great.
Naval (Central Museum) in the Soviet period
After the events of October 1917, the new governmentpay great attention to the expansion and qualitative improvement of its funds. Exhibits from many state and private collections come here, and in 1939 the Naval Central Museum changes its address. From the Admiralty he moves to Vasilyevsky Island, to a building that previously belonged to the Stock Exchange (photo at the end of the article). This magnificent building, built in 1816, is one of the architectural masterpieces of the northern capital.
Due to the fact that the museum funds contained a hugethe amount of materials moving to a new room lasted for two years. During the war, the most significant exhibits were transported to the rear. The rest of the collection remained in besieged Leningrad, heroically preserved by museum workers. Thanks to their work and dedication, invaluable evidence of the history of the Russian fleet successfully waited for Victory Day. In July 1946, the Naval Central Museum was again in its entirety became the property of visitors.
In subsequent years, he became one of the mostvisited museums of the city. A large place in his work was occupied by the organization of school trips and thematic exhibitions. Along with sections of the museum that reflected the history of the navy of Russia in past centuries, visitors were attracted by the recent past, which told about the heroism of Soviet sailors during the past war.
Currently, the Naval Centralthe museum is located in the renovated complex of the Kryukov barracks, located in the historic center of the city. The decision to move it was made in 2009, during celebrations related to the museum’s 300th anniversary. The reason was the dilapidated state of the building on Vasilyevsky Island, where he had been before. According to experts, for its restoration it was necessary to completely free the rooms from the exhibits. This move took place in 2013.
Today, the Central Naval Museum inSt. Petersburg is of great interest for its expositions of models of military and merchant ships, historical documents related to navigation, military insignia, awards, banners, weapons and other exhibits telling about the glorious and heroic path of St. Andrew’s flag, the main symbol of the Russian fleet.