One of the most important inventionshumanity, which allowed to preserve and multiply its wisdom, became a book. It was she who became the main crown of writing, the focus and symbol of knowledge. But how did the book appear? What is the history of creating books? How has it changed over the past millenniums?
History of the origin and development of writingis inextricably linked with the history of the appearance of books. Initially, oral stories and cave paintings were the main methods of information transfer. But over time, different peoples of the world began to invent their own systems of signs to denote words. From this moment, the history of writing arises.
As soon as people discovered writing,they immediately began to use for writing any improvised material. There were stones and metal, bark of trees, clay tablets and much more. A great step forward was the invention of papyrus by the Egyptians. Before the advent of parchment and paper, this material was mainly used for recording.
The prototype of a book
In general, glued together in scrolls papyri can bedesignate as a type of books. The Phoenician city of Byblos, which is the center of export of papyrus to Hellenic poles, gave the Greek name to the book - the Byblos. It is from this word that all the familiar concept of library came to us.
In Greece, and later in Rome, libraries of steelan integral part of life and civilization. Skoropissi recorded and published many books of a wide variety of subjects. The then books looked like scrolls wound on a special stick that had thickened ends.
The history of the creation of the first book of this format is not known for certain. But the importance of such books for the ancient world is known.
Approximately in the 1st century AD, the firstmanuscripts, with the passage of centuries they begin to gain more and more popularity. In many respects this was due to convenience and practicality. After all, it became possible to write on both sides of the sheet. The manuscript, having a small size, was very convenient.
It finds recognition and honor in the Christian world, especially with the beginning of the active use of parchment, which replaces the papyrus.
The history of the creation of books in Europe during the Middle Ages is inextricably linked with the clergy, as the most reading class and for the most part creating books.
In China, paper is invented, which later spreads through India to the Arab world, and from there to Europe. So gradually the book radically changes its image, beginning to resemble the familiar format.
The book in ancient Russia
Initially in Russia they wrote on birch bark, but withOther types of media, including parchment and paper, also came here. The history of the book in Russia had several significant stages. The emergence of birchbark letters, which can be considered the initial stage, was supplemented in the 9th century by an equally significant event - the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet. After this, in the XI century, the first manuscript book appeared.
According to some historians, the first books in Russia could have been written before, perhaps even in the 10th century.
Over time, along with handwritten arises anda different type of books - printed. The history of the creation of a printed book begins in ancient China. There the first prints on the fabric were created from the VI century (according to other sources - from the IX century), although the piece printing itself originated in China in the III century. For example, in Egypt, its analogue appeared in the V century.
Over time, piece printing has spread tothe country of the Arab East, and in the XIV century came to Europe. So religious engravings, historical annals and chronologies, decrees of the king and even playing cards begin to be printed.
In 1445 (the date is approximate) Johann Gutenberg creates book printing, making a breakthrough in a number of areas, from the development of the font to the creation of his printing press.
From Germany, printing beginsspread throughout Europe. All books created before the end of 1500 were called "incunabula", which means "cradle". At first, printed books retain a number of signs of handwriting, but with the passage of time, they increasingly move away from them.
Throughout the following centuries, printingthe machines have been significantly improved, and the book itself has become more and more like modern editions. The availability of paper at the end of the XIX century, the creation of steam presses, and later the introduction of linotype and monotypic printing presses, allowed to significantly increase the speed and volume of printing, making the book much more accessible.
Together with the weakening of censorship and the expansion of the directions for writing works, the book became a generally accessible and incredibly important source of knowledge and a true friend of modern man.
Nowadays the printed book continues to hold its positions, although the appearance of electronic books is called the next step in its evolution. The history of the creation of books is not completed.