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The scientific picture of the world and its varieties

The concept of a scientific picture of the world is used in different interpretations. This is a special form of knowledge, based on scientific data, corresponding to a certain historical period.

The notion of a scientific world picture is often usedin the meaning of the image and model of the world in characterizing the worldview positions of someone. But more often the term "scientific picture of the world" denotes that system of knowledge that is acquired as a result of theoretical foundations laid in natural sciences, the object of research of which is nature and society in a single connection and through fundamental concepts.

The scientific picture of the world is considered in three varieties:

  1. General scientific idea of ​​the universe and society on the basis of all knowledge, concluded in different disciplines.
  2. The natural picture of the world in the scientific perspectivethe prevailing ideas about society and nature, and generalizing scientific information, formed as a result of the development of natural and socio-humanitarian disciplines.
  3. Disciplinary vision of the world, expressed in the term "ontology" and understood in the light of a particular science, for example, the physical or chemical picture of the world.

The scientific picture of the world is fundamentally different fromunscientific in that it is based on a theory that is scientifically sound, proven, and therefore unquestioned. But this does not mean that the scientific picture of the world is identical to the scientific theory. The first reflects the object as a whole, in isolation from the process of obtaining knowledge, and the theory simultaneously carries in its content and logically based evidence.

The scientific picture of the world fulfills three, closelyinterrelated, functions performed in the process of research. The first of them is to systematize the available scientific knowledge, forming a complex, but understandable and unified whole. The second function is to determine the strategy for future scientific knowledge, when the NCM acts as a research program. And the third task, which it is called upon to perform, is to ensure the objectivity of scientific knowledge and their inclusion in the treasury of the cultural heritage of mankind.

The philosophical and scientific picture of the world is closely connectedbetween themselves. They both represent the form of human knowledge of the surrounding reality. However, the philosophical picture has its own specifics. It considers, first of all, from the point of view of the basis of being. And secondly, philosophy is interested in the picture of the world on the part of the structure of the overall structure and state in which it is located. Depending on this, and formed two basic concepts in philosophy, known as materialism and idealism. If materialism recognizes the basis of being matter, then idealism puts an absolute idea at the forefront.

For all the dissimilarity between themselves, the philosophical andthe scientific picture of the world converge in that both the scientist and the philosopher, analyzing any situation, must make a choice in the direction of a materialistic or idealistic position. That is, the philosophical substantiation of its position when considering issues of universal significance becomes mandatory. To exclude subjective moments completely, unfortunately, is impossible.

The modern scientific picture of the world seeksto bring knowledge closer to the real state of reality and recognizes the urgency of the problem of obtaining objective knowledge only on the basis of repeated practical testing. Scientists understand the impossibility of creating a picture of the world completely and pay great attention to the study of phenomena of reality characteristic of common features, combining the objective and subjective. Even such fundamental discoveries about the foundations of the universe, as the structure of the atom and electrons, will be further elaborated by many generations of curious minds.