The sun, ocean, port, seafarers, pirates andfootball - such an associative array is built when you mention this country and its main, the oldest city in Europe and the capital of Portugal. Photos of Lisbon and its attractions are presented in the article.
Lisbon is located on seven hills along the riverTejo is the most western metropolitan city in Europe, only the Atlantic Ocean. They say that in reality there are more hills, but you can not argue with legends.
The Lisbon Port is one of the main ports of the Atlantic, which has been operating since the 15th century. For a year the port serves more than 3,5 thousand vessels.
The first millennium BC - this periodconsider the beginning of the birth of the city on the territory of which the Celts lived and traded the Phoenicians. Arrived in the VI century BC. e. The Greeks changed the Phoenicians' name of the Allis Ubbo settlement to Ollisipon, which can be considered as the former capital of Portugal.
In the IV-III centuries BC. e.here settled Lusitanians conquered by Rome in the II century BC. e. In the I century BC. e. Ollissipo became part of the Roman province of Lusitania. The main religion proclaimed Christianity, and the first bishop - Potamy. This period became the heyday of the city. Around the city were built fortress walls, inside - a theater, baths, temples dedicated to the gods. The wine, salt, fish sauce Garum was in full swing.
The collapse of the Roman Empire after 409 AD e.began the raids of the barbarians. In 585, the Germans who occupied the city called it Ulisbona. In 711 the Arabs came. In 868, the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Christians (Reconquista) formed the county of Portugal, which in 1143 became an independent kingdom. And the capital of Portugal Lisbon received its name in 1225.
The 16th century became gold in the literal sense - the precious metal flowed generously from the colonized Brazil. For 100 years, 1000 tons of gold and 3 million carats of diamonds were mined.
In 1580-1640, Portugal was under the rule of Spain, but eventually managed to gain independence. The earthquake, tsunami and fire of 1755 destroyed the city, which was later rebuilt.
Lisbon is not bypassed by the army of Napoleon at the beginning of the XIX century. In 1910, the monarchy was overthrown in the country and Portugal was declared a republic.
A rich history of the country where houses can be withoutembarrassment to assign the status of a monument of architecture, created the image of the city - the capital of Portugal. Medieval buildings and new buildings - there is everything: from traces of pterodactyl to modern galleries. On the first Sunday of the month, the state museums of Lisbon can be visited absolutely free of charge.
The Castle of St. George
The iconic fortress of the capital of Portugal Lisbonrises on a high hill and is visible from any place in the city. This fortification has been serving since the Roman era. It was completed and rebuilt by the Arabs, the Crusaders. First the fortress was called Cerca Fernandina. At the end of the XIV century, the castle was named after St. George, the patron of the knights.
The walls of the palace saw the wedding of the monarchs, royalreceptions, there was an archive with important documentation. Later, the fortress lost its importance and was destroyed by several earthquakes. Today, some of the preserved fragments fit into the architecture of the city, some became the basis for new buildings.
The reward for a long climb through narrow streets will be a magnificent view from a height to the city and the river, and the peacocks walking lazily among the walls will become companions in a walk.
Torri di Belen
Torri di Belen Castle erected on the right side of the riverTo Theo. This tower was built in 1521 in connection with the opening of the sea route to India. The main function is to protect against attacks of filibusters and troops from neighboring states. The convenient location in front of the harbor entrance was the ideal point for firing at the enemy. It was also used as a powder storehouse, a place for keeping prisoners, a lighthouse and a customs station. For modern Portugal Torri di Belen is a symbol of the city and a reminder of the contribution of ancestors-seafarers to the discovery and exploration of new lands.
With the construction of the tower, a curioushistory. In 1514 the Portuguese King Manuel I was presented with a gift from the Indian sultan Gujerat - a two-ton rhino. After an unsuccessful attempt to organize a battle with an elephant who refused to participate in this event, a rhinoceros in a collar made of green velvet was sent as a presentation to the Pope. Unfortunately, the ship did not cope with the natural elements and sank off the coast of Genoa. The figure of the rhinoceros is still a support for one of the towers of the castle.
In our time, Torri di Belém is an object of cultural heritage and is open to all comers.
In Portuguese, the cathedral soundsjust like Sé (Se), from the Latin Sedis Patriarchal. According to archaeologists, in this place stood a Roman temple, which in the IV-V centuries became a Christian church, which was later destroyed for the construction of a mosque.
The mosque also lasted not very long, in 1150instead of it a new temple with a fortress for Christians was built. He became the basis for the cathedral in the form in which it exists today. In its appearance, changes were made both by nature, by natural disasters, and by masters in the period of Baroque, Rococo, Gothic and Neoclassicism, by adding elements appropriate to the age.
Visitors to the cathedral will be interested to see the collection of treasures, which is represented in the southern tower.
According to legend, in the Lisbon Cathedral wasbaptized patron of the capital of Portugal, Saint Antonio. Nowadays every year on the holiday of St. Antonio the city authorities choose twelve pairs for the wedding in this church and pay all expenses at the expense of the city budget.
Monastery of the Jeronimites in Belene
Mosteiro dos Jerónimos was added to the UNESCO listWorld Heritage sites. The monastery was built in the suburbs of the capital of Portugal, Santa Maria di Belém in the 16th century, as a thanks to the Virgin Mary in connection with the Vasco da Gama expedition to India. The erection was completed by 1600, after which the monks of the Order of St. Jerome placed prayers for all seafarers.
In this place are buried the kings Manuel I and Juan III, the legendary traveler Vasco da Gama and the poet Fernando Pessoa.
In the western part are the Sea and National Archaeological Museums.
The Statue of Christ
Statue with arms outstretched, height 28meters, is located on the bank of the river Tejo on a 75-meter base, set on a cliff (113 meters above sea level). The object is perfectly visible from anywhere in the city. This is a full-fledged complex, which includes, apart from the monument, chapels of the Holy Virgin Mary and Jesus' confidant, a library, exhibition zones.
The statue of Christ was built for ten years (with1949 to 1959) to the donations of Portuguese women, whose fathers, husbands and sons were spared the need to take part in World War II.
In one of the pedestal columns hidden liftinga device for delivery of those who wish to the observation deck, from which the entire Lisbon opens, both in the palm of your hand. Today the statue of Christ is placed on all the photos of Lisbon (the capital of Portugal). The object has rightfully become one of the main symbols of the city.
Vasco da Gama Bridge
The longest bridge in Europe (more than 17 kilometers)Through the Tagus built in the capital of the country of Portugal. It happened in 1998 to the world exhibition Expo 98 and is timed to the 500th anniversary of the opening of the sea route to India.
When planning and erecting a bridge, a number of technical nuances were taken into account, so that the design is able to withstand even in the event of an earthquake of maximum power.
National Museum of Ancient Art
The works of Bosch, Durer, Raphael, Ribert, Velasquez,Francisco de Zurbarán and other famous painters can be seen at the National Museum of Ancient Art in Lisbon, where a collection of significant works of art from Portugal and Europe from the fourteenth to the early nineteenth century is presented.
The gallery of the museum is constantly replenished bypatrons: in the list of donors: Queen Carlotta Joaquin and oil tycoon Galust Gyulbenkyan. To date, the funds have more than two thousand works of art.
National Museum of Costume and Fashion
The history of the costume, men's, children's clothing andladies' dresses can be traced in the National Museum of Costume and Fashion, which opened its doors in 1977. Today he is recognized as one of the best in Europe. The collection consists of 40,000 exhibits - original items of all types from different eras, from the 17th century to the present day. Behind the museum is a botanical garden, which will be a pleasant addition to a visit to the museum.
The original idea of the palace in the pseudo-medievalstyle came to the head of Prince Ferdinand Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who embodied it in life in 1840 (already in the status of King Ferdinand II) and used as a summer royal residence. The architectural style of the castle is a bizarre mixture of Gothic, Renaissance with oriental domes and minarets. The terraces and pinnacles of the palace have leisurely walks.
The monument to Dr. Souza Martins
Around the monument to Dr. Souza Martins alwaysa large number of colors and tablets with thanksgiving inscriptions. A talented, enthusiastic physician all his life searched for a cure for tuberculosis and treated patients without dividing them by the poor and the rich. Ironically, he himself contracted tuberculosis and died at 54 years of age, committing suicide. After his death, the authorities decided to open a hospital for tuberculosis control.
Moved a couple of centuries ago, you can by visitingOne of the oldest quarters of the city called Alfama, presumably from the Arabic al-hamma ("baths", "sources"). In this area in the XVI century baths operated with waters from thermal springs, which were used not only for water supply, but also for medicinal purposes.
Alfama occupies the foot of two hills, in the territory of this district there are: the Cathedral, the Castle of St. George, the Church of St. Stephen and St. Vicente.
In addition to the proposed, the capital of Portugalhas many other interesting places: the Pommel Marquess Square, the Restorers' Square, the Monte Agudo viewing area in the San Jorge-di-Arroyos area, the National Carriage Museum, the Church of Saint Vincent, the Tourel Gardens. Therefore, the choice of a country for a traveler who values beauty in all its manifestations is obvious.