After the expulsion of authoritarian and domineeringTarquinia the Proud in Rome established republican rule. The Roman Republic (509 - 27 BC) in its history has passed two stages: the so-called early (509-265 BC) and late (264-27 BC) republic. During its formation in Rome, production developed rapidly, which contributed to serious social shifts.
The state system of Ancient Rome in this period combines features of aristocratic and democratic. Privileges belonged to the nobility - rich to the top slave owners.
Legal capacity in Rome was only those whohad freedom, family and citizenship. The whole population was divided into free and slaves. The first, in turn, were two class groups: the top of the rich slave-owners and small producers (artisans and farmers, to which the urban poor also joined). Slaves could belong to the state or private individuals.
The Roman Republic turned them into the mainoperated class. Sources of slavery were taken into military captivity, and also began to practice self-sale. The power of the owners over the slaves had no restrictions.
By citizenship, all the free population of the republic was divided into citizens and Peregrins (foreigners). Citizens became freedmen and slaves, but they were limited in their rights.
At the end of the II-II century. BC.there were privileged classes - they were nobilis (rich patricians and the upper plebs) and riders (commercial and financial nobility, landowners). To participate in the People's Assembly, as well as occupy state positions, only householders-heads of families-could.
The state system of the Roman Republic wassuch. The highest state bodies were the following: the Senate, people's congresses and magistracies. People's congresses were of three types: centurial, tribute and curricular. The main role belonged to the collections of the centurion. By the middle of the III century. BC. the structure of the meeting has changed. They were already represented not only by aristocrats and rich slaveholders, but each of the ranks of propertied citizens began to exhibit the same number of centurions. Their sphere of competence included the adoption of laws, the declaration of wars, the consideration of complaints on the death penalty.
Important in social and political lifethe Senate played. Although formally he was an advisory body, but his powers included the functions of financial, legislative, religious culture, improvement, public security and foreign policy.
Public posts were calledmagistracy. They were divided into ordinary (ordinary) posts with posts of consuls, censors, praetors, quaestors, etc. and extraordinary (extraordinary), created in extraordinary circumstances: wars, insurrections, etc. At the suggestion of the Senate dictators were appointed.
The Roman Republic relied on an army thatplayed a particularly important role in the life of the state. At this time, foreign policy was characterized by almost continuous wars. There was a struggle with Carthage for the possession of the Western Mediterranean (about 120 years, from 264 BC to 146 BC, the Punic Wars lasted). Also for this period are wars with Syria and Macedonia. By 146 BC. The Roman Republic established its dominion over the entire Mediterranean.
The development of slave-owning society in the times of the republic led to an exacerbation of its social and class contradictions. In the II century. BC. e. crisis of the political organization.
The collapse of the republic was accompanied by such events,as two Sicilian revolts of slaves and under the leadership of Spartacus (74-70 BC), the struggle between large and small landowners, the revolutionary movement of the rural plebs under the leadership of the Gracchi brothers, the Allied war, a general uprising against the authority of Rome, which resulted in the establishment dictatorship of Sulla, and then - Caesar.