In poetry, to enhance the impact,various stylistic and rhetorical figures (epithets, trails, metaphors, allegories, etc.). One of them in the speech is an anaphora - this is one-man organization. What she is, you can find out by reading this article.
Anaphora: what is it? Examples of using this figure of speech
Why this stylistic figure?Anaphora is repetitive at the beginning of the verse, several stanzas or hemistichs a certain word or sounds. They are needed to consolidate the speech segments and give the entire poem expressiveness and brightness. This term originated from the ancient Greek word ἀναφορά, which means "pronouncement". For example, in Alexander Pushkin's poem "Autumn" you can find anaphora "Uzh", which is repeated at the beginning of the first two stanzas. It strengthens the sensations from the signs of an approaching autumn. After reading the poem with the anaphora "really" there is a dreary feeling from the approach of the raw and cold pores.
Examples of anaphora
Like all other repetitions, thesestylistic figures, regardless of their location, bring into the poem a certain zest, a great expressiveness, as if directing attention to a particular word or thought. The same applies to other stylistic and rhetorical figures, but, unlike, for example, epithets or trails, the anaphora is a figure of speech that has its strict location - the starting position. Similar techniques exist in music. Here is another example of anaphora, which can be found in Vysotsky:
"In order not to fall into the trap,
In order not to get lost in the dark ...
... Draw a plan on the map. "
In this case, the word "that" lists all the adversities that can be encountered, if not draw a plan.
Species of anaphora
This stylistic figure has several varieties, namely:
1. Sonic anaphora are repeated combinations of the samesounds. For example, in the poem of Alexander Pushkin at the beginning of the lines, not the word is repeated, but only his first three letters: "Thunderstormed bridges, coffins from a washed cemetery ..."
2. Morphemic. In this case, the repetition of morphemes is used(root) or other parts of the word. Here, at the beginning of the lines of the poem by Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov "... A black-eyed girl, a black-haired horse! .." the root of "black" repeats. But not the whole word.
3. Lexical. In this case, whole words are repeated.Here is an example of such anaphora: "It was not for nothing that the winds blew, there was not a storm in vain". By the way, this species is the most common anaphor in the literature. This can be seen from the school course on this subject. In textbooks on literature, regardless of the time of their publication, you can always find the poems of Athanasius Fet, he is truly a master in the use of these stylistic figures.
Here is an excerpt from one of his poems: "I came to you with greetings, to tell that the sun had risen, .. to tell that the forest had awakened ..." Here the lexical anaphora is the word "tell."
4. Syntactic. In addition to repeating words and combinations of sounds, anaphoric is also the repetition of syntactic constructions. For example, "am I wandering ..., am I sitting ..., am I entering ...".
5. The stanza. Repetition can be at the beginning of each of thestanzas, and this can be either a single word or a phrase, in most cases - an exclamation. For example: "Earth! .. From the snow's moisture ... Earth! .. She runs, runs."
6. Strophico-syntactic anaphora Is a kind of stylistic figure thatits principle is similar to the previous one, however here at the beginning of the stanza a repetitive proposal is put with some semantic changes, for example: "While the machine gun does not thirst ... until the army commander is in need ..."
By the way, anaphora is also a literary device, in which all words in a poem start with the same sound. For example: "Radiant flax lovingly sculpts ..."
Epiphora, or stylistic figure, the opposite of anaphora. What's this?
Unlike anaphora, the epiphore is arepetition is not at the beginning of a verse or a stanza, but, on the contrary, at the end. Thanks to her, the rhyme is obtained: "The guests came ashore, Prince Gvidon calls them to visit ...". Epiphany, like the anaphora, is a stylistic figure. It gives expression to this literary work (poem, poem, ballad), brightness, sharpness. Thanks to this figure of speech, rhyme is created.
Types of epiphora
Epiphora has several varieties. It can be of the following types:
1. Grammatical. When the same sounds repeat at the end of the same segments, for example, they were friends - lived, etc., then we are dealing with a grammatical epiphory.
2. Lexical. In poetry, sometimes at the end of each of the versesrepeat the same word. This is the lexical epicor. This stylistic figure can be found in Pushkin's poem "Keep Me, My Talisman". Here at the end of each of the verses the word "talisman" repeats.
3. Semantic epiphany. This kind of stylistic figures differs in that not words and a combination of sounds are repeated, but synonymous words.
4. Rhetorical. This stylistic device is often used infolklore works, for example, in a song about geese - "... one white, another gray - two merry goose." This construction, consisting of two lines, occurs at the end of each of the verses.
Anaphora is one-handedness.It is a stylistic figure that gives the poem or speech of individual characters (in the poem) a special semantic and linguistic expressiveness by repeating words, combinations of sounds, phrases, and sentences at the beginning of a line, a stanza or a verse.