Experiment Milgram - experience in the socialpsychology, conducted by a resident of the United States of America Stanley Milgram in 1963. The psychologist himself studied at Yale University. For the first time with his work, Stanley introduced the people in his article "Submission: A Study of Behavior." Somewhat later he wrote a book on the same subject: "Submission to authority: an experimental study", published in 1974.
In the twentieth century, manyexperimental studies, but the most vivid were psychological experiments. Since the conduct of such studies affects the ethical standards of a person, the result is public discussion. This was the experiment of obedience Stanley Milgram.
A lot is known about this experiment, and it is namedthe most cruel for good reason. Before the subjects there was a veiled task to awaken the sadist in himself, to learn how to deliver pain to others and not to feel remorse.
Stanley Milgram was born on August 15, 1933 inBronx, a troubled area of New York. In this area, refugees and settlers from Eastern Europe settled. One of these families was Samuel and Adele Milgram with three children who moved to the city during the First World War. Stanley was the middle of the children. The first level of education was in the school of James Monroe. By the way, with him in the class studied Philip Zimbardo, who in the future also became a famous psychologist. After both became successful, Zimbardo began to duplicate the subjects of Milgram's research. What is it - imitation or really thought in unison, is still a mystery.
After graduation, Stanley enteredKing's College in New York and chose the Faculty of Political Science. But after a while I realized that this was not his element. In explaining this, he said that political science does not take into account the opinions and motivations of people at the proper level. But he finished his studies, and decided to enter a post-graduate course in another specialty. During his studies at Milgram College, he was seriously interested in the specialty of "social psychology". He decided to continue this study at Harvard. But, unfortunately, he was not accepted because of a lack of knowledge and experience in that sphere. But Stanley was very determined, and in just the summer he did the impossible: six courses of social psychology took place in three universities in New York. As a result, in 1954, in the fall, he made a second attempt at entering Harvard, and he was accepted.
During the training, he became friendly with the guesta lecturer whose name was Solomon Ash. He became for Milgram the authority and an example for further growth in the field of psychology. Solomon Ash gained his fame due to the study of the conformality phenomenon. Milgram assisted Asha both in the training process and in research.
After graduation from Harvard StanleyMilgram returned to the United States of America and continued to work in Princeton with his mentor Solomon Ash. It is worth noting the fact that, despite the close communication between the men, there were no friendly and easy relations between them. Milgram only treated Asha as an intellectual educator. After a year of work in Princeton, he decided to go into independent work and began to develop a scheme of his own scientific experiment.
The meaning of the experiment
In the brutal experiment of Stanley Milgram's taskwas to find out how much suffering ordinary people are prepared to inflict on others, if this is part of their job duties. Initially, the psychologist decided to experiment on the people of Germany during the Nazis' reign to identify people who could participate in extermination and torture in concentration camps. After his social experiment Milgram perfected, he planned to go to Germany, because he believed that the Germans are more inclined to obey. But after the first experiment in New Haven in Connecticut, it became clear that there was no going anywhere, and you can continue working in the United States of America.
Briefly about the Milgram experiment
The result showed that people are not capable ofto confront the authoritative authorities, who were ordered to make other innocent people suffer by passing electrical charges through them. The result was such that the position of the authorities and the duty of unquestioning submission were deeply entrenched in the subconscious of the common people, that no one can oppose the decrees, even if they contradict the principles and create an internal conflict with the performer.
As a result, this bitter Milgram experiment wasrepeated in several other countries: Austria, Holland, Spain, Jordan, Germany and Italy. The result was the same as in America: people are ready to inflict pain, torture and even death not only on the stranger, but on the compatriot, if required by higher leadership.
Description of the experiment
Milgram experiment "Obedience" was conducted onYale University. It was attended by more than a thousand people. Initially, the essence of the actions was simple: to offer a person more and more actions that would contradict his conscience. The key question of experience, accordingly, would sound like this: how far can a person go in causing pain to another, while obedience to the teacher will not become contradictory for him?
To participants of the experiment the essence was presented insomewhat different light: the study of the effect of physical pain on the function of human memory. In the experiment, a mentor (experimenter), a test subject (further student) and a front actor in the role of the second subject participated. Further rules were stated: the student learns a long list of pairs of words, and the teacher checks how accurately the other has learned the words. In case of error, the teacher passes an electric charge through the pupil's body. With each error, the charge level increases.
The game has begun
Before the beginning of the experiment Milgram arrangedtoss-up. Two sheets of paper with the inscriptions "pupil" and "teacher" were offered to draw out to each participant, while the teacher always got the subject. Actor in the role of a student passed to the chair with electrodes carried to it. Before the beginning everyone was given an indicative shock with a current of 45 volts.
The teacher went into the next room and begangive assignments to the student. With each error memorizing pairs of words, the teacher pressed the button, after which the student was shocked. The rules of the experiment of subordination Milgram sounded so that with each new error the voltage increased by 15 volts, and the maximum voltage was 450 volts. As it was said earlier, the role of the pupil is played by the actor, who pretends that he is being electrocuted. The system of answers was designed so that for each correct answer the actor gave three wrong ones. Thus, when the teacher read out a couple of words to the end of the first village, the student was already threatened with a blow to 105 volts. After the subject wanted to proceed to the second sheet with a couple of words, the experimenter said to go back to the first and start again, reducing the current impact to 15 volts. This testified to the seriousness of the experimenter's intentions and that the experiment would not end until all the pairs of words had been passed.
The first contradiction
At 105 volts the student began to demandthe cessation of torture, which gave the subject a lot of remorse and personal contradictions. The experimenter told the teacher a few phrases that encouraged him to continue acting. As the charge increased, the actor more and more depicted pain, and the teacher more and more hesitated in his actions.
At this time, the experimenter was not inactive, butHe said that he takes all responsibility for the safety of the student and for the entire course of the experiment, and that the experiment should be continued. But at the same time, there were no threats or promises of reward toward the teacher.
With every increase in tension, the actor is increasinglybegged to stop the torment, at the end of a heart-rending yelling. The experimenter continued to instruct the teacher, using special phrases that were repeated in a circle, each time as the subject doubted.
As a result, each experiment was completed. The results of Stanley Milgram's experiment of obedience astonished everyone.
The staggering results
According to the results of one of the experiments,that 26 subjects out of 40 did not take pity on the student and brought the torture to the maximum current discharge (450 volts). After three times switching on the maximum voltage, the experimenter gave the order to complete the experiment. Five teachers stopped at 300 volts, when the victim began to show signs that he could no longer tolerate (knocking on the wall). In addition, the actors stopped giving answers to this mark. Four more people stopped at a voltage of 315 volts, when the student knocked on the wall a second time and did not give an answer. Two subjects stopped at 330 volts when noises and responses were no longer received. One person stayed at the following levels: 345 in, 360 in, 357 in. The others have reached the end. The results really frightened the people. The subjects themselves were also horrified at what they could come to.
Full information about the experiment
More about the experiment of Stanley Milgram"Submission authority" can be read in his book "Submission authority: experimental research." The book is published in all languages of the world and it will not be difficult to find. Indeed, what is described in it, bewitching and horrific at the same time. As Stanley Milgram invented just such an experiment and why he chose such a cruel way - remains a mystery.
Subject submission to authority, developeda social psychologist back in 1964, is still sensational and shocking. With the book is not only to get acquainted with psychologists, but also people of other specialties.