Practical psychology is applieddiscipline. This is the section of psychology in which the study of the practical application of this science takes place. Thus, scientific practical psychology is not synonymous with popular, everyday, everyday, and certainly not public "VKontakte." It finds application in practice - in working with patients and providing social spheres.
Practical psychology is a science thatis concentrated only in the field of psychology itself and its application in practice. Until the 19th century this section was called experimental, at present the synonym "applied" is common. However, applied psychology, although it also deals with the application of discipline in practice, focuses on its related areas of activity and studies it in specific areas: advertising, education, sports, etc.
Use the epithets "applied" and"practical" in this case in the same sense is incorrect. Practical psychology is a branch of science that deals with the practice of psychology itself, and as applied, practice is directed at related fields. In addition, the practical speaks to society in the simple language of the inhabitants, in contrast to the dry, abundant terms of the exposition of applied discipline.
The theory is often ahead of practice, which is whyscience appears weakly based assumptions and hypotheses. These gaps need to be filled in with something. In psychology, for practical purposes and filling in the gaps, the so-called metaphors are used-unsupported but working techniques that are a specific part of the discipline under consideration.
The problem, which is sharply put before practical psychology, is that the real world's requests do not correspond to the theoretical basis. From this come the basic tasks of this science.
The main tasks of practical psychology
The basic problems faced by practical psychology are dictated by the theoretical basis and conditions of the real world:
- individual psychological counseling for patients whose disorders are partially or completely untreatable;
- conducting group trainings (including in the corporate and business environment);
- psychological support of social spheres.
Knowledge of practical psychology is transmitted througha kind of chain: from psychology addressed to the therapist, and from the therapist (or psychoanalyst) are broadcasted to his patient. Psychotherapeutic work is an essential part of practical psychology. Thus, individual counseling of a client is always connected with unique personal problems that do not have a concrete solution based on theoretical knowledge. That's why doctors check different techniques and their combinations, trying to understand what exactly is suitable for this or that patient.
The remaining questions can be very narrow -such as issues of personal success, time distribution, business psychology. Others, on the contrary, affect the broad strata of education or personal development.
Practical psychology and other branches of science
What does practical social psychology do?Now it becomes clear. The point is that to solve the problems of practical psychology you have to cooperate with other fields of science. This is how new applied industries appear, which receive their names depending on the sphere in which it is applied. It can be practical psychology of education, social, legal, medical, sports or pedagogical. All of them are united by a feature in the orientation toward the academic research field of knowledge.
Methods of practical psychology
A special place in applied industries is occupied byobjective scientific methods, that is, carrying out experiments, observations and tests. The methods of academic psychology in this case are considered unsuitable. Studies of mental reality are inferior to real practice. In many respects it is connected with human subjectivity.
The methods of practical psychology are usually classified into two types:
- Individual - used when working with one-on-one psychologist. This section includes psychoanalysis.
- Group - psychological consultations in the form of trainings, the formation of Gestalt groups and other types of correction in groups.
In addition, scientific methods are often borrowed from those industries with which this science cooperates and which form it. For example, methods of reinforcement and suggestion are borrowed from pedagogy.
The methodology of psychological counseling, due to complexity and specificity, should be considered separately. In general, it includes counseling and psychotherapeutic work.
The following schools are of great importance for practical psychology:
- Psychoanalysis was first proposed and introduced by Sigmund Freud and is still used today. It is based on the identification and study of unconscious internal and irrational drives.
- Behaviorism is the direction by which the main subject of study is not consciousness, but the behavior of the patient. Nowadays it is mostly replaced by cognitive psychology.
- Cognitive psychology - focused oncognitive processes of human consciousness: memory, attention, imagination. Also, research is concerned with the study of logical thinking, decision making and the problem of choice.
- Humanistic psychology - as a basis is taken,as is clear from the title, humanism, that is, the love of a person as a person, the recognition of this unique and integral system. Proceeding from this, the self-actualization and development of the personality, its adaptation in the society, creative self-expression, etc. are studied.
Interested in practical psychology canget education for this specialization. Bachelors and masters in the appropriate direction are trained both public and private, higher education institutions. In addition, this direction can be complementary to the main training profile. It is on this principle that graduates are being prepared, for example, the Kirov Institute of Practical Psychology.
Practical psychology is a division of knowledge that is used by representatives of the following professions:
- coach coach;
And if for the first there is a basicpsychological education - an indispensable condition, then, for example, a coach can only have an additional re-profiling. This is a vivid example of how the discipline in question comes into contact with the real world and its requirements - the goal before the coach is to promote and help the client achieve the goal. Practical and firmly standing on the feet of the task. Either it is fulfilled, or not.
In the context of psychological counseling, the task - to deal directly with the patient's problems - is also set forth accurately and clearly.
Practical psychology: books
The books in this area relate toscientific and popular science genre. Often they answer specific questions: how to understand what other people feel and think; How to treat yourself and people? In addition, there are only educational publications (T. Gudkevich, "Practical Psychology: Introduction to the Specialty", M. Gulina, "Consultative Psychology: A Textbook") and practical guidelines (D. Raigorodsky, "Psychological Counseling"; Tarabrina, "A practical guide to the psychology of post-traumatic stress").