Any person knows what is most difficult duringwork to maintain the maximum concentration of attention on the selected subject. Successes in study and career are achieved only by those who are able to focus on one thing and not be scattered on extraneous thoughts and unnecessary actions. Scientists and psychologists have long studied the issue of human concentration. So there was a method of selectivity of attention of Münsterberg, which helps a person train his attention in order to further achieve great heights in career and study.
Hugo Munsterberg is a German psychologist wholived in the late 19 th - early 20 th century. From his youth he was fond of medicine and wanted to become a doctor. But once heard a lecture of the German psychologist Wundt changed his life, and he became interested in psychology, and in 1885 even defended his thesis and received a doctorate in this specialty.
Unfortunately, in those years psychology was moretheoretical science and practice had a very remote relationship. Hugo Munsterberg became one of the first psychologists who organized the experimental and psychological laboratory and tried to give science an applied character.
The technique, which allows to improve human concentration abilities, was discovered by the scientist in 1915. It was during these years that he seriously engaged in industrial psychology.
Münsterberg's method: essence and practical significance
As mentioned above, Munsterberg seriously engaged in issues of increasing the productivity of man.
The scientist was one of the first to see a direct connection betweenthe extent to which a person can concentrate his attention and his successes in the professional sphere of activity. Find an effective way to increase the concentration of a person - that's what was the goal of Munsterberg.
Test of Munsterberg
One of Munsterberg's tests is aimed not only at developing attention, but also at diagnosing it simultaneously.
A person is given a piece of paper on whicha large paragraph of a set of letters is printed. The letters, at first glance, are not connected in any way. Each line looks something like this: "ukolodtdozhdimioidaayyylmdalm." But in this set of letters are hidden words that a person must find during the time allotted to him. As a rule, 2-3 minutes are given for the assignment.
Then, the results of the Munsterberg test are evaluated. The processing of the results looks like this.
- The ratio of encrypted words and those that the person missed is calculated.
- If the number of words found is below the average result, the subject is given a recommendation that he needs to do more exercises for attention and train this property of his psyche.
- If the number of words found corresponds to the average result, then the person is given a recommendation according to which from time to time in the form of a game he should repeat such exercises.
- If the number of words found is equal to the number of encrypted words, then the participant of the test can only be congratulated, since he has a remarkably sharp attention skill.
How urgent is the problem of concentration?
The Münsterberg method is used to study the professional suitability of a person in many fields of activity. True, it is used in different variations.
- Astronauts before the flight into space passA special training, which includes exercises for concentration of attention. For example, they are offered to watch a second hand for five minutes. At first glance, it seems that it is easy to do, but many fail the test and are forced to repeat it again and again.
- Motorists often fall into accidents due to the fact,that they do not have a high ability to concentrate their attention and do not have time to respond to obstacles in time. Large and bright road signs are installed in order to attract the attention of the motorist and remind him of the responsibility for his life and the lives of others.
- The acting profession is completely built on the abilityconcentrate. Large volumes of text, proposed circumstances, pictures of the vision - all this the actor should keep in mind and at the moment of the play think only about it.
What do people who know how to concentrate on the goal
People who have highconcentration abilities, immediately noticeable. They do their job well, up to the smallest detail, because they know how to throw everything unnecessary out of their attention and for a while to devote only to the work they are doing.
In business, the ability to concentrate identicallypurposefulness of a person, as well as the ability to separate the main and secondary. In training, the degree of concentration completely determines the amount of information a person can absorb. In communication, negotiation, concentration fully determines the ability of a person not only to express his thoughts, but also to perceive the arguments of his interlocutor. A very interesting relationship exists between the temperament of a person and his ability to concentrate. For example, it is noted that choleric people (due to their moving temperament) know how to focus on some matter for a short time. They tend to jump from one topic of conversation to another, from one lesson to another.
Actually, these issues were devoted to the research of Munsterberg. The technique for developing attention is capable, even in some sense, of discovering a genius in man.
Concentration of attention and genius
Thus, it is difficult to overestimate that benefit,which hides in itself the technique of Munsterberg's attention. Exercises are extremely simple, but if you master them and perform them regularly, and then apply your ability to concentrate in work, then every person once risks waking up as a genius.