The production of food is verya complex, time-consuming and responsible process. Several years ago, manufactured semi-finished products, meat products, milk, etc. were checked not only at the final stage, but also immediately before loading and sending to points of sale. But in 2013, a law appeared in the legislative framework, obliging all food producers to introduce a new system for standardizing production. The HACCP system at the food business (what it is, you will learn later) has allowed to significantly improve the quality of the food group's food products and to standardize the production process.
HACCP in the food business is a set ofmandatory to comply with the rules, the main purpose of which is to improve the level of food safety. This regulation is not new, as it appeared in the mid-1960s in the United States. Our technologists took the western one for the basis and significantly reworked, adapting to the domestic food industry.
The main purpose of HACCP isstandardization of production processes and their breakdown into separate stages, which allows them to control. Thus, not only the quality of the final product has grown, but also the employees of a particular enterprise have been able to identify problematic locations and quickly eliminate them.
Speaking in a simple language, HACCP on the foodenterprise is a modern GOST, adapted to the current market conditions. According to domestic technology, during the use of this system in the US, it has demonstrated its effectiveness.
HACCP in the food industry, an example of whichsomehow resembles GOST, should have been operational at every enterprise since February 15, 2015. Initially, the changes in the legislation were planned to be put into effect two years earlier, but due to some shortcomings the decision of the legislative bodies was revised.
What areas of production affect?
It is worth noting that enterprises associated withproduction, storage, delivery and sale of food products is not necessarily to receive a HACCP certificate. It is enough that the enterprise carries out production in compliance with all modern requirements.
What does the HACCP certificate give?
According to the current legislation,enterprises are not required to receive certificates of compliance of their products with modern standards. However, there are a number of cases in which its presence is mandatory.
- with participation in the tender for public procurement;
- when concluding contracts for the sale of products through retail chains;
- in cooperation with foreign companies operating in the same field;
- when signing contracts for the supply of a large volume of products.
With regard to production, during verification, the regulatory authorities verify compliance with HACCP rules in the food business, the program here is mandatory.
Preparatory stage for implementation
- independent audit of the current work of the enterprise;
- an assessment of the performance of the security system;
- training of employees of the enterprise;
- project development;
- search and elimination of problem points.
Based on the information received, a report is drawn up, on the basis of which a working scheme will be created.
The implementation of the HACCP system in the food business is carried out in stages, and consists of the following steps:
- A responsible group is created.
- Standardization of all work processes.
- The methods of consuming food products and the possible methods for their preparation are determined.
- The stages of production are compiled and tested, which are then combined into a single technological scheme.
- A list of possible risks associated with production and the level of their danger is compiled
- The break-even level is determined and the acceptable limit is set for it.
- A system for controlling production processes is being created.
- A plan of action is drawn up in case of occurrence of various unforeseen events in the course of work.
- The main methods of verification and control are determined.
- Technical documentation for accounting is compiled.
All these steps are mandatory when starting the HACCP system in a food business, as they provide an opportunity to understand the current state of affairs, as well as to identify and eliminate current problems.
Logging and charting
On paper, the following should be recorded:
- Quality control of suppliers' products.At the enterprise there should be a security journal, in which the state of the purchased raw materials and the date of its receipt are fixed. In addition, there must be documents confirming its quality.
- Production control plan.It includes standards of sanitary and hygienic standards and a schedule of necessary measures to maintain cleanliness and order in the enterprise, which are approved by management.
- Accounting for visits by third parties.
- Medical examinations.Every employee of an enterprise engaged in the manufacture of food products must have a medical booklet with all the analyzes and examinations provided for by the HACCP system at the food business.
- Cleaning and disinfection. The company should have instructions for preparing cleaning, washing and disinfecting solutions and mixtures, as well as a magazine with a schedule of events.
- Functioning of engineering systems. At the enterprise, a log of temperature and humidity control should be maintained, as well as an agreement for the maintenance of the ventilation system.
- Means of transport. Responsible persons should keep a log of temperature control (at which the delivery of products) and registration of body sanitation.
- Equipment. Manufacture of products is allowed only on equipment that meets certain technical standards and has appropriate technical documentation.
- Waste storage and disposal. Storage of waste should be carried out in specially designated places, and their disposal and removal should take place according to the developed schedule.
- Control of compliance of finished products.All products that are shipped to the places of sale or catering establishments must be accompanied by accompanying documentation, certifying its quality and safety.
- to undergo a medical examination in a timely manner;
- adhere to health standards during work.
It is worth noting that the new rules prohibitto take food in places where food is prepared and stored. In addition, employees who have infectious, skin and purulent diseases or suspected of them, are not allowed to perform their duties. According to the owners of food industry enterprises, thanks to HACCP the productivity of activity has increased significantly.
What will be the failure or failure of the HACCP system at the enterprise?
If the enterprise does not comply with the quality standardsHACCP or works without them, then if this violation is discovered, Rospotrebnadzor employees impose a pecuniary penalty of 600 thousand rubles. If such a violation is recorded a second time, then the fine increases to one million. Therefore, if the firm works in the field of production of ready-made food or fast food, the introduction of HACCP in a meat-based food company is mandatory, since the constant payment of fines can lead to bankruptcy, and failure to comply with norms will damage the health of consumers.
What do farmers think about the new system of standards?
In addition, agrarians doubt the goodintentions of the state. Most farmers are convinced that the introduction of HACCP is a desire to get another lever of influence on entrepreneurs. Some suggested that the cost of developing and launching a quality control scheme would lead to a significant rise in the price of food products on the shelves of stores.
Despite the dissatisfaction of the agrarians andindustrialists, the process of implementation of HACCP was launched and proceeds, albeit at a small but steady pace. Undoubtedly, to date, the vast majority of enterprises have not yet implemented the HACCP system, which is a consequence of the inertia of the regulatory bodies. Nevertheless, the units that use innovative development, speak about it very positively.