The Senate refers to one of several highergovernment bodies in the country, which deals with issues of personnel appointments, political investigations, the definition of domestic and foreign policy. State institutions of our time have their own versions of this institution in Russia, in the USA, Italy, as well as France, Spain, Belgium, Kazakhstan, the Czech Republic, Poland, Australia, Colombia and many others. Often this body is called in another way - the top the House of Parliament (legislative assembly).
Senators are officials in elected positionsin the institution of the same name. However, in some countries of the modern democratic system, this term is used to refer to the branches that are part of the highest judicial instances.
To determine what the word "senator" means,it is necessary to turn to the Latin origins of this expression. In the ancient language, now not used in colloquial speech, there is the word "senatus". It defines a group, a collection of older people, and, in turn, comes from "senex", which means "old man". The very origin of the term is closely connected with one of the forms of social structure, where the power belonged to those tribal elders, which later were referred to as senators. It lasted about a thousand years during the existence of ancient Rome. Having first appeared in that old era, the idea of the Senate as a political institution was raised by many countries throughout a significant historical period up to the present day.
However, even now, in ancient times, senators aredifferent officials. Then they were considered representatives of the upper class. The title given to them was lifelong. The emperor had the power to appoint people to these posts, and they passed their position by inheritance. With the establishment of the republic around the 6th century BC. e. The senate originated from the council of elders, who represented the patrician family. Along with other state formations, it became a significant part of public life. In its composition, former magistrates were for life, which meant the concentration of political forces and the experience of Rome.
The senators carried out a preliminaryconsideration of bills, led military affairs, determined foreign policy, finances, cared about state property, supervised religious cults, declared a state of emergency. Almost they were in charge of the state.
Their decrees had the force of law.In the ancient Roman period, the senators' power was gradually limited, relentlessly concentrating on the emperor. As the governing body turned into a meeting of representatives of noble wealthy families, each senator whose office was inherited ceased to have much political influence.
In Russia, the first senate was founded by Tsar Peter the Greatin 1711 as the highest body of state power and lawmaking. From the beginning of the 19th century, the institution began to exercise supervisory functions over the work of public entities. And, according to the high decree, since 1864, it was assigned to him another important thing - to perform the function of the highest cassation instance. However, having existed until 1917, the Senate and its members were dissolved as a result of the events of the October Revolution at the request of the "Decree on the Court".
King Peter the Great was often absent from the country, thatIt prevented him from devoting himself entirely to government. With the purpose of delegating authority, he repeatedly entrusted matters to selected individuals. At first these powers looked like a temporary personal assignment. But since 1711, such responsibilities have been assigned to a new institution, called the Governing Senate. It did not resemble the foreign institutions of that time (Poland, Sweden), but was called upon to respond to the peculiar conditions of Russian life. The size of the authority given to the officials was determined by a decree of the tsar, where it was clarified about the influence of his majesty on the equal with his person. This, to a certain extent, affected the meaning of the word "senator" in the Russian interpretation.
When Peter's regular absences ceased,the question of dissolving the senators did not arise. The institution becomes an organization, where the most important cases of management, legal proceedings and the development of current legislation are taking place. In the last years of the reign of Peter, the extraordinary powers of the senators lost their meaning, mainly in the legislative case. Founded in 1726, the Supreme Privy Council actually began to exercise power, as a result of which the position of the Senate radically changed, and many of its members moved to the posts in the Council.
In the next nearly two hundred years established by PeterThe first organization underwent many changes: it was divided into departments, altered into a cabinet, a committee of ministers, divided powers, duties and rights both internally and in conjunction with other state institutions. The coming of the revolution and people's power in the early 20th century made its continued existence impossible. The institution and its members were exempted from duties.
The newest period
For the first time the prototype of the senate in Russia of the Soviet erawas implemented on the example of the Federation Council (unofficial reduction - SovFed) in July 1990 as an advisory body to the President of the USSR in the period 1990-1991. He was headed directly by the head of the country and included top officials in the staff. It included 31 members from among the chairmen of the Soviets of Autonomous Republics, regions and districts, and also 31 chairmen of some regional and city bodies. Having carried out an analogy with a number of foreign institutions, people began to call the SovFed the Senate, and its members - senators.
Today in Russia, the Upper ChamberOf the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. It was created on the basis of the organ of the Soviet period and operates on the principle of the classical senate. The Federation Council can not be dissolved by the President. Meetings in it are held separately from meetings of deputies in the State Duma. It works as a permanent body, members of the Council fulfill their duties on an ongoing basis.
This state body is formed andis compiled on a non-party basis. This definition means that its members do not create factions or parties. Representatives of the Upper Chamber are inviolable for the entire term of their office. The legislative work of the institution takes a subordinate role in relation to the State Duma. Thus, the acts are preliminary discussed in the Duma and only after a positive evaluation are submitted for consideration by the SovFed.
Over the past 20 years, the Russian "Senate"passed four stages of reform. At each of them, a change of regional leaders was carried out, the mechanisms of personnel appointments were clarified, and the passing qualification was determined. For example, among the general requirements for elected candidates there is an age limit of 30 years, the need for 5 years of compassion, as well as an impeccable reputation. Each senator in Russia is a representative of the legislative or executive body of a constituent entity of the Federation.
How it is done in America
Senators are the second in political influencepeople in the state after the governor. Their total number in the United States is 100 members, 2 representatives each from the state. To be elected to the post of US senator, as a rule, is much more complicated than the congressman:
- pass only two people from the state and no more;
- US senators are elected for a six-year term, that is, every two years they campaign for one-third of the total membership;
- The election procedure can take a large amount of financial and psychological resources.
To have real chances for an official candidate for senators, the law requires:
- sufficient time to be a known person, preferably both in the state and at the level of the federal political atmosphere;
- have a good public status: governor, congressman with experience, mayor from a big city, other dignities and achievements;
- to focus on yourself a great deal of influence and financial opportunities;
- each candidate must be nominated by the state party organization, a non-partisan fighter to win elections in the states is very difficult.
Election campaign in the Senate is held in the samefierce manner, as well as presidential elections. During the year millions are wasted, scandals in the media are constantly emerging. Compete in the fight for one candidate from the Republican and Democratic parties. If the new candidate showed a good result of work for the first term, then in the next election he becomes almost invincible. A senator in the United States is a public servant who holds his office sometimes up to 30 years.
Duties of the senator
Member of the Senate of any state is endowed with a number ofpowers and duties, the performance of which his voters demand. Since the main work of the institution consists of meetings and discussions of documents, the official must certainly take a personal active part in the meetings of those entities of which he is a member. The senators consider draft laws, define the internal and external policies of the society, take part in the management of finances, state property, culture, industry, and education. A member of an institution shall ensure equal representation of each of the subjects of the federation in the supreme bodies of power by his office. He is elected for a longer term than parliamentarians, and their total number is updated more often. The senators have the same duties as the deputies of the lower chambers. With the interaction of the Senate with the Parliament, this allows you to filter out solutions with a populist bias.