Blood is a type of connective tissueman and animals. It consists of three types of cells, which are also called blood corpuscles. Also, there is a large amount of liquid intercellular substance.
Blood corpuscles are divided into three types: platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes. Platelets take part in the process of blood coagulation. Erythrocytes are responsible for the transport of oxygen throughout the body. A function of leukocytes - the protection of the human body or animal from harmful microorganisms.
What are the leukocytes?
There are several of their varieties, each of which performs its specific functions. So, leukocytes are divided into:
What is granulocytes?
They are also called granular white blood cells. This group includes eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. The former are capable of phagocytosis. They can capture microorganisms and then digest them. These cells are involved in inflammatory processes. They are also capable of neutralizing histamine, which is excreted by the body during allergies. Basophils have in their composition a large number of serotonin, leukotrienes, prostaglandins and histamine. They are involved in the development of allergic reactions of immediate type. Neutrophils, as well as eosinophils, are capable of phagocytosis. A large number of them are in the hearth of inflammation.
Monocytes and lymphocytes are species of agranular (non-grained) leukocytes. The first, as well as the agranulocytes, are able to absorb foreign particles that have got into the body.
Lymphocytes are also part of the immune system of humans and animals. They participate in the neutralization of pathogens that enter the body. Let's talk about these cells in more detail.
Lymphocytes are what?
There are several varieties of these cells. We will discuss them in detail later.
We can say that lymphocytes are the main cells of the immune system. They provide both cellular and humoral immunity.
Cellular immunity is thatlymphocytes directly contact with pathogens. Humoral is the production of special antibodies - substances that neutralize microorganisms.
The level of lymphocytes in the blood depends on the amountin the body of pathogens or viruses. The more of them, the more the body produces immune cells. Therefore, you probably already guessed what the increased lymphocytes in your blood are. This means that a person in the body now has an acute or chronic form of an inflammatory disease.
Lymphocytes: what are their types?
Depending on their structure, they are divided into two groups:
- large granular lymphocytes;
- small lymphocytes.
Also, lymphocyte cells are divided into groups, depending on the functions that they perform. So, three types are distinguished:
The former are able to recognize foreign proteins andproduce antibodies to them. Elevated levels of these cells in the blood are observed in diseases that are affected once (chickenpox, rubella, measles, etc.).
There are three types of T-lymphocytes: T-killers, T-helpers and T-suppressors. The first destroy cells infected by viruses, as well as tumor cells. T-helpers stimulate the production of antibodies to pathogens. T-suppressors inhibit the production of antibodies, when threats to the body no longer exist. NK-lymphocytes are responsible for the quality of body cells. They are capable of destroying those cells that differ from normal cells, for example, cancerous cells.
How do lymphocytes develop?
These cells, like other blood cells,produced by red bone marrow. They are formed there from stem cells. The next important organ of the immune system is the thymus or thymus gland. These are newly formed lymphocytes. Here they ripen and are divided into groups. Also, some lymphocytes can mature in the spleen. Further, fully formed cells of the immune system can form lymph nodes - accumulations of lymphocytes along the lymphatic vessels. Nodes may increase during inflammatory processes in the body.
How many lymphocytes should be in the blood?
The permissible amount of lymphocytes in the blood depends on the age and on the state of the body. Let's look at their normal level in the table.
|Age||The absolute content of leukocytes in the blood (* 109/ l)||The percentage relative to all leukocytes (%)|
|up to 1 year||2-11||45-70|
|10-16 years old||1.2-5.2||30-45|
|from 17 years old and older||1-4,8||19-37|
These indicators do not depend on gender: for women and men, the rate of lymphocytes in the blood is the same.
Indications for the study of lymphocyte levels
To find out their amount in the blood, a general blood test is used. He is appointed to children in the following cases:
- Preventive medical examination once a year.
- Medical examination of chronically ill children two or more times a year.
- Health complaints.
- Lingering treatment of non-serious diseases, such as acute respiratory infections.
- Complications after viral diseases.
- To track the effectiveness of treatment.
- To assess the severity of certain diseases.
Adult blood count is shown in such cases:
- Medical examination before employment.
- Preventive medical examination.
- Suspected anemia and other blood disorders.
- Diagnosis of inflammatory processes.
- Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.
- Lymphocytes in the blood of women is very important to monitor during pregnancy, especially in the first and second trimesters.
If their amount in the blood is above the specified rateThis indicates a viral disease, some bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis, syphilis, typhoid fever, cancer, severe chemical poisoning. Particularly elevated lymphocytes in diseases, which produced a strong immunity. These are chicken pox, measles, rubella, mononucleosis, etc.
Lack of them in the blood is called lymphopenia. It occurs in such cases:
- early viral diseases;
- oncological diseases;
- chemotherapy and radiation therapy;
- treatment with corticosteroid drugs;
- Itsenko-Cushing disease.
How to prepare for a blood test?
There are several factors that canaffect the number of lymphocytes in the blood. If not properly prepared for a blood test, it may give incorrect results. So, you need to follow the following rules.
- Do not lie for a long time before donating blood for analysis. An abrupt change in body position can affect the number of lymphocytes in the blood.
- Do not take a blood test immediately after medical procedures such as x-rays, massage, punctures, rectal examinations, physiotherapy, etc.
- Do not take a blood test during menstruation and immediately after it. The optimal time is 4-5 days after it ends.
- Do not worry before giving blood.
- Do not take a blood test immediately after exercise.
- It is best to donate blood for analysis in the morning.
If these rules are not followed, there is a highthe likelihood that the results of the analysis will be interpreted incorrectly, and the wrong diagnosis will be made. In such cases, a second blood test may be prescribed for more accurate diagnosis.